ⓘ Mind - Cognition, Critical thinking, Eudaimonia, Geist, Introspection, Mental operations, Mental state, Neurophilosophy, Noocenosis, Noogenesis ..


Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language. Cognitive processes use existing knowledge and generate new knowledge. Cognitive processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguis ...

Critical thinking

Critical thinking is the analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual evidence. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities as well as a commitment to overcome native egocentrism and sociocentrism.


Eudaimonia, sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" and "blessedness" have been proposed as more accurate translations. Etymologically, it consists of the words eu "good" and daimōn "spirit". It is a central concept in Aristotelian ethics and subsequent Hellenistic philosophy, along with the terms "aretē" most often translated as "virtue" or "excellence" and "phronesis" often translated as "practical or ethical wisdom". In Aristotles works, eudaimonia based on older Greek tradit ...


Geist is a German noun with a degree of importance in German philosophy. Its semantic field corresponds to English ghost, spirit, mind, intellect. Some English translators resort to using "spirit/mind" or "spirit to help convey the meaning of the term. Geist is also a central concept in Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegels 1807 The Phenomenology of Spirit Phanomenologie des Geistes. Notable compounds, all associated with Hegels view of world history of the late 18th century, include Weltgeist "world-spirit", Volksgeist "national spirit" and Zeitgeist "spirit of the age".


Introspection is the examination of ones own conscious thoughts and feelings. In psychology, the process of introspection relies exclusively on observation of ones mental state, while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of ones soul. Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection and self-discovery and is contrasted with external observation. Introspection generally provides a privileged access to ones own mental states, not mediated by other sources of knowledge, so that individual experience of the mind is unique. Introspection can determine any number of me ...

Mental operations

Mental operations are operations that affect mental contents. Initially, operations of reasoning have been the object of logic alone. Pierre Janet was one of the first to use the concept in psychology. Mental operations have been investigated at a developmental level by Jean Piaget, and from a psychometric perspective by J. P. Guilford. There is also a cognitive approach to the subject, as well as a systems view of it.

Mental state

A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in. Most simplistically, a mental state is a mental condition. It is a relation that connects the agent with a proposition. Several of these states are a combination of mental representations and propositional attitudes. There are several paradigmatic states of mind that an agent has: love, hate, pleasure and pain, and attitudes toward propositions such as: believing that, conceiving that, hoping and fearing that, etc.


Neurophilosophy or philosophy of neuroscience is the interdisciplinary study of neuroscience and philosophy that explores the relevance of neuroscientific studies to the arguments traditionally categorized as philosophy of mind. The philosophy of neuroscience attempts to clarify neuroscientific methods and results using the conceptual rigor and methods of philosophy of science.


A Noocenosis from Greek νόος - "mind, thought, perception, sense" and κοινός – "common, mutual, shared, joint" is an artificial biological community built upon a degraded ecosystem. A noocenosis is the result of structural improvements by man and differs from the original, evolutionarily constructed biological community. The concept noocenosis was first used in Russia in the 1970s by the ecologist Stanislav Semenovich Schwartz. The concept was, however, more fully developed in the 1990s by the ecologist Victor Vasilievich Petrashov. Academic use of the term noocenosis is still predominatel ...


Noo, nous UK, US: – from the ancient Greek νόος, has synonyms in other languages 智慧 Chinese, is a term that currently encompasses the semantics: mind, intelligence, intellect, reason; wisdom; insight, intuition, thought, - in a single phenomenon. Noogenesis was first mentioned in the posthumously published in 1955 book The Phenomenon of Man by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, an anthropologist and philosopher, in a few places: "With and within the crisis of reflection, the next term in the series manifests itself. Psychogenesis has led to man. Now it effaces itself, relieved or absorbed by an ...