ⓘ Geography - Fictional geography, Fundamental plane, spherical coordinates, Geo-literacy, Geo-replication, Geoarchaeology, Geocriticism, Geographic contiguity ..

Fictional geography

Fictional geography is the use of maps, text and imagery to create lands and territories to accompany works of fiction. Depending on the completeness and complexity of the work, varying media, levels of collaboration and a number of other factors, the depiction of geographical components to works of fiction can range from simple drawings of a small area as in The Twenty-One Balloons by William Pene du Bois to an entire fictional world as in The Lord of the Rings by Tolkien or even an entire galaxy as in Star Trek and its variants.

Fundamental plane (spherical coordinates)

The fundamental plane in a spherical coordinate system is a plane of reference that divides the sphere into two hemispheres. The geocentric latitude of a point is then the angle between the fundamental plane and the line joining the point to the centre of the sphere. For a geographic coordinate system of the Earth, the fundamental plane is the Equator. Celestial coordinate systems have varying fundamental planes: The galactic coordinate system uses the Milky Ways galactic equator. The Besselian coordinate system uses Earths terminator day/night boundary. This is a Cartesian coordinate syst ...


The term "geo-literacy" arose from the National Geographic Societys "Fight against Geographic Illiteracy." The organization released various media to help explain the concept to the general public. In an editorial, Daniel C. Edelson, vice president for education at National Geographic, said, "The National Geographic Societys concern for geo-literacy comes from our mission. We see geo-literacy as providing the tools that will enable communities to protect natural and cultural resources, reduce violent conflict, and improve the quality of life worldwide. However, having a geo-literate popula ...


Geo-replication systems are designed to improve the distribution of data across geographically distributed data networks. This is intended to improve the response time for applications such as web portals. Geo-replication can be achieved using software, hardware or a combination of the two.


Geoarchaeology is a multi-disciplinary approach which uses the techniques and subject matter of geography, geology, geophysics and other Earth sciences to examine topics which inform archaeological knowledge and thought. Geoarchaeologists study the natural physical processes that affect archaeological sites such as geomorphology, the formation of sites through geological processes and the effects on buried sites and artifacts post-deposition. Geoarchaeologists work frequently involves studying soil and sediments as well as other geographical concepts to contribute an archaeological study. ...


Geocriticism is a method of literary analysis and literary theory that incorporates the study of geographic space. The term designates a number of different critical practices. In France, Bertrand Westphal has elaborated the concept of geocritique in several works. In the United States, Robert Tally has argued for a geocriticism as a critical practice suited to the analysis of what he has termed "literary cartography".

Geographic contiguity

Geographic contiguity is the characteristic in geography of political or geographical land divisions, as a group, not being interrupted by other land or water. Such divisions are referred to as being contiguous. In the United States, for example, the "48 contiguous states" excludes Hawaii and Alaska, which do not share borders with other U.S. states. Other examples of geographical contiguity might include the "contiguous European Union" excluding member states such as Ireland, Sweden, Finland, Malta and Cyprus these being non-contiguous, or the "contiguous United Kingdom" referring to all ...

Geographic targeting

Geographic targeting is a viable way for resource allocation, especially to alleviate poverty in a country. In this context, public expenditure and policy interventions can be deployed to reach the neediest people in the poorest areas. Geographical targeting for poverty alleviation employs a variety of techniques, such as database, and geographic information systems to construct poverty maps.

Geographical cluster

A geographical cluster is a localised anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be expected. Examples would include: a local excess disease rate, a crime hot spot, areas of high unemployment, accident blackspots, unusually high positive residuals from a model, high concentrations of flora or fauna, physical features or events like earthquake epicenters etc. Identifying these extreme regions may be useful in that there could be im ...

Geographical feature

Geographical features are naturally-created features of the Earth. Natural geographical features consist of landforms and ecosystems. For example, terrain types, are natural geographical features. Conversely, human settlements or other engineered forms are considered types of artificial geographical features.