ⓘ Benign prostatic hyperplasia, also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate gland. Symptoms may include frequent urinatio ..

                                     

ⓘ Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia, also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate gland. Symptoms may include frequent urination, trouble starting to urinate, weak stream, inability to urinate, or loss of bladder control. Complications can include urinary tract infections, bladder stones, and chronic kidney problems.

The cause is unclear. Risk factors include a family history, obesity, type 2 diabetes, not enough exercise, and erectile dysfunction. Medications like pseudoephedrine, anticholinergics, and calcium channel blockers may worsen symptoms. The underlying mechanism involves the prostate pressing on the urethra thereby making it difficult to pass urine out of the bladder. Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and examination after ruling out other possible causes.

Treatment options including lifestyle changes, medications, a number of procedures, and surgery. In those with mild symptoms weight loss, exercise, and decreasing caffeine intake is recommended. In those with more significant symptoms, medications may include alpha blockers such as terazosin or 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride. Surgical removal of part of the prostate may be carried out in those who do not improve with other measures. Alternative medicine, such as saw palmetto, does not appear to help.

About 105 million men are affected globally. BPH typically begins after the age of 40. Half of males age 50 and over are affected. After the age of 80 about 90% of males are affected. Although prostate specific antigen levels may be elevated in males with BPH, the condition does not increase the risk of prostate cancer.

                                     

1. Signs and symptoms

BPH is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms LUTS, which are divided into storage, voiding, and symptoms which occur after urination. Storage symptoms include the need to urinate frequently, waking at night to urinate, urgency compelling need to void that cannot be deferred, involuntary urination, including involuntary urination at night, or urge incontinence urine leak following a strong sudden need to urinate. Voiding symptoms include urinary hesitancy a delay between trying to urinate and the flow actually beginning, intermittency not continuous, involuntary interruption of voiding, weak urinary stream, straining to void, a sensation of incomplete emptying, and uncontrollable leaking after the end of urination. These symptoms may be accompanied by bladder pain or pain while urinating, called dysuria.

Bladder outlet obstruction BOO can be caused by BPH. Symptoms are abdominal pain, a continuous feeling of a full bladder, frequent urination, acute urinary retention inability to urinate, pain during urination dysuria, problems starting urination urinary hesitancy, slow urine flow, starting and stopping urinary intermittency, and nocturia.

BPH can be a progressive disease, especially if left untreated. Incomplete voiding results in residual urine or urinary stasis, which can lead to an increased risk of urinary tract infection.

                                     

2.1. Causes Hormones

Most experts consider androgens testosterone and related hormones to play a permissive role in the development of BPH. This means that androgens must be present for BPH to occur, but do not necessarily directly cause the condition. This is supported by evidence suggesting that castrated boys do not develop BPH when they age. In an unusual study of 26 eunuchs from the palace of the Qing dynasty still living in Beijing in 1960, the prostate could not be felt in 81% of the studied eunuchs. The average time since castration was 54 years range, 41–65 years. On the other hand, some studies suggest that administering exogenous testosterone is not associated with a significant increase in the risk of BPH symptoms, so the role of testosterone in prostate cancer and BPH is still unclear. Further randomized controlled trials with more participants are needed to quantify any risk of giving exogenous testosterone.

Dihydrotestosterone DHT, a metabolite of testosterone, is a critical mediator of prostatic growth. DHT is synthesized in the prostate from circulating testosterone by the action of the enzyme 5α-reductase, type 2. DHT can act in an autocrine fashion on the stromal cells or in paracrine fashion by diffusing into nearby epithelial cells. In both of these cell types, DHT binds to nuclear androgen receptors and signals the transcription of growth factors that are mitogenic to the epithelial and stromal cells. DHT is ten times more potent than testosterone because it dissociates from the androgen receptor more slowly. The importance of DHT in causing nodular hyperplasia is supported by clinical observations in which an inhibitor of 5α-reductase such as finasteride is given to men with this condition. Therapy with a 5α-reductase inhibitor markedly reduces the DHT content of the prostate and, in turn, reduces prostate volume and BPH symptoms.

Testosterone promotes prostate cell proliferation, but relatively low levels of serum testosterone are found in patients with BPH. One small study has shown that medical castration lowers the serum and prostate hormone levels unevenly, having less effect on testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels in the prostate.

While there is some evidence that estrogen may play a role in the cause of BPH, this effect appears to be mediated mainly through local conversion of androgens to estrogen in the prostate tissue rather than a direct effect of estrogen itself. In canine in vivo studies castration, which significantly reduced androgen levels but left estrogen levels unchanged, caused significant atrophy of the prostate. Studies looking for a correlation between prostatic hyperplasia and serum estrogen levels in humans have generally shown none.

In 2008, Gat et al. published evidence that BPH is caused by failure in the spermatic venous drainage system resulting in increased hydrostatic pressure and local testosterone levels elevated more than 100 fold above serum levels. If confirmed, this mechanism explains why serum androgen levels do not seem to correlate with BPH and why giving exogenous testosterone would not make much difference.

                                     

2.2. Causes Diet

Studies indicate that dietary patterns may affect development of BPH, but further research is needed to clarify any important relationship. Studies from China suggest that greater protein intake may be a factor in development of BPH. Men older than 60 in rural areas had very low rates of clinical BPH, while men living in cities and consuming more animal protein had a higher incidence. On the other hand, a study in Japanese-American men in Hawaii found a strong negative association with alcohol intake, but a weak positive association with beef intake. In a large prospective cohort study in the US the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, investigators reported modest associations between BPH men with strong symptoms of BPH or surgically confirmed BPH and total energy and protein, but not fat intake. There is also epidemiological evidence linking BPH with metabolic syndrome.

                                     

2.3. Causes Degeneration

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is an age-related disease. Misrepair-accumulation aging theory suggests that development of benign prostatic hyperplasia is a consequence of fibrosis and weakening of the muscular tissue in the prostate. The muscular tissue is important in the functionality of the prostate, and provides the force for excreting the fluid produced by prostatic glands. However, repeated contractions and dilations of myofibers will unavoidably cause injuries and broken myofibers. Myofibers have a low potential for regeneration; therefore, collagen fibers need to be used to replace the broken myofibers. Such misrepairs make the muscular tissue weak in functioning, and the fluid secreted by glands cannot be excreted completely. Then, the accumulation of fluid in glands increases the resistance of muscular tissue during the movements of contractions and dilations, and more and more myofibers will be broken and replaced by collagen fibers.



                                     

3. Pathophysiology

As men age, the enzymes aromatase and 5-alpha reductase increase in activity. These enzymes are responsible for converting androgen hormones into estrogen and dihydrotestosterone, respectively. This metabolism of androgen hormones leads to a decrease in testosterone but increased levels of DHT and estrogen.

Both the glandular epithelial cells and the stromal cells including muscular fibers undergo hyperplasia in BPH. Most sources agree that of the two tissues, stromal hyperplasia predominates, but the exact ratio of the two is unclear.:694

Anatomically the median and lateral lobes are usually enlarged, due to their highly glandular composition. The anterior lobe has little in the way of glandular tissue and is seldom enlarged. Carcinoma of the prostate typically occurs in the posterior lobe – hence the ability to discern an irregular outline per rectal examination. The earliest microscopic signs of BPH usually begin between the age of 30 and 50 years old in the PUG, which is posterior to the proximal urethra.:694 In BPH, the majority of growth occurs in the transition zone TZ of the prostate.:694 In addition to these two classic areas, the peripheral zone PZ is also involved to a lesser extent.:695 Prostatic cancer typically occurs in the PZ. However, BPH nodules, usually from the TZ are often biopsied anyway to rule out cancer in the TZ.:695

                                     

4. Diagnosis

The clinical diagnosis of BPH is based on a history of LUTS lower urinary tract symptoms, a digital rectal exam, and exclusion of other causes of similar signs and symptoms. The degree of LUTS does not necessarily correspond to the size of the prostate. An enlarged prostate gland on rectal examination that is symmetric and smooth supports a diagnosis of BPH. However, if the prostate gland feels asymmetrical, firm, or nodular, this raises concern for prostate cancer.

Urinalysis is typically performed when LUTS are present and BPH is suspected to evaluate for signs of a urinary tract infection, glucose in the urine suggestive of diabetes, or protein in the urine suggestive of kidney disease. Bloodwork including kidney function tests and prostate specific antigen PSA are often ordered to evaluate for kidney damage and prostate cancer, respectively. However, checking blood PSA levels for prostate cancer screening is controversial and not necessarily indicated in every evaluation for BPH. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer are both capable of increasing blood PSA levels and PSA elevation is unable to differentiate these two conditions well. If PSA levels are checked and are high, then further investigation is warranted. Measures including PSA density, free PSA, rectal examination, and transrectal ultrasonography may be helpful in determining whether a PSA increase is due to BPH or prostate cancer. Ultrasound examination of the testes, prostate, and kidneys is often performed, again to rule out cancer and hydronephrosis.

Validated questionnaires such as the American Urological Association Symptom Index AUA-SI, the International Prostate Symptom Score I-PSS, and more recently the UWIN score are useful aids to making the diagnosis of BPH and quantifying the severity of symptoms.



                                     

4.1. Diagnosis Medical conditions

The differential diagnosis for LUTS is broad and includes various medical conditions, neurologic disorders, and other diseases of the bladder, urethra, and prostate such as bladder cancer, urinary tract infection, urethral stricture, urethral calculi stones, chronic prostatitis, and prostate cancer. Neurogenic bladder can cause urinary retention and cause symptoms similar to those of BPH. This may occur as a result of uncoordinated contraction of the bladder muscle or impairment in the timing of bladder muscle contraction and urethral sphincter relaxation. Notable causes of neurogenic bladder include disorders of the central nervous system such as Parkinsons disease, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injuries as well as disorders of the peripheral nervous system such as diabetes mellitus, vitamin B12 deficiency, and alcohol-induced nerve damage. Individuals affected by heart failure often experience nighttime awakenings to urinate due to redistribution of fluid accumulated in swollen legs.



                                     

4.2. Diagnosis Medications

Certain medications can increase urination difficulties by increasing bladder outlet resistance due to increased smooth muscle tone at the prostate or bladder neck and contribute to LUTS. Alpha-adrenergic agonist medications, such as decongestants with pseudoephedrine can increase bladder outlet resistance. In contrast, calcium channel blockers and anticholinergic medications can worsen urinary retention by promoting bladder muscle relaxation. Diuretic medications such as loop diuretics e.g., furosemide or thiazides e.g., chlorthalidone can cause or worsen urinary frequency and nighttime awakenings to urinate.

                                     

5. Management

When treating and managing benign prostatic hyperplasia, the aim is to prevent complications related to the disease and improve or relieve symptoms. Approaches used include lifestyle modifications, medications, and surgery.

                                     

5.1. Management Lifestyle

Lifestyle alterations to address the symptoms of BPH include physical activity, decreasing fluid intake before bedtime, moderating the consumption of alcohol and caffeine-containing products and following a timed voiding schedule. Patients can also attempt to avoid products and medications with anticholinergic properties that may exacerbate urinary retention symptoms of BPH, including antihistamines, decongestants, opioids, and tricyclic antidepressants; however, changes in medications should be done with input from a medical professional.

                                     

5.2. Management Voiding position

Voiding position when urinating may influence urodynamic parameters. A meta-analysis found no differences between the standing and sitting positions for healthy males, but that, for elderly males with lower urinary tract symptoms, voiding in the sitting position:

  • decreased the voiding time
  • decreased the post void residual volume
  • increased the maximum urinary flow, comparable with pharmacological intervention

This urodynamic profile is associated with a lower risk of urologic complications, such as cystitis and bladder stones.

                                     

5.3. Management Medications

The two main medication classes for BPH management are alpha blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors.



                                     

5.4. Management Alpha blockers

Selective α 1 -blockers are the most common choice for initial therapy. They include alfuzosin, doxazosin, silodosin, tamsulosin, terazosin, and naftopidil. They have a small to moderate benefit at improving symptoms. Selective alpha-1 blockers are similar in effectiveness but have slightly different side effect profiles. Alpha blockers relax smooth muscle in the prostate and the bladder neck, thus decreasing the blockage of urine flow. Common side effects of alpha blockers include orthostatic hypotension a head rush or dizzy spell when standing up or stretching, ejaculation changes, erectile dysfunction, headaches, nasal congestion, and weakness. Naftopidil and tamsulosin may have similar levels of unwanted sexual side effects and silodosin may have more unwanted side effects.

Tamsulosin and silodosin are selective α1 receptor blockers that preferentially bind to the α1A receptor in the prostate instead of the α1B receptor in the blood vessels. Less-selective α1 receptor blockers such as terazosin and doxazosin may lower blood pressure. The older, less selective α1-adrenergic blocker prazosin is not a first line choice for either high blood pressure or prostatic hyperplasia; it is a choice for patients who present with both problems at the same time. The older, broadly non-selective alpha blocker medications such as phenoxybenzamine are not recommended for control of BPH. Non-selective alpha blockers such as terazosin and doxazosin may also require slow dose adjustments as they can lower blood pressure and cause syncope fainting if the response to the medication is too strong.



                                     

5.5. Management Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors

A meta‐analysis found that tadalafil 5 mg once‐daily is an effective treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms and that such treatment had a low rate of adverse effects. Other phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors are also effective, but may require multiple doses daily to maintain adequate urine flow. suggesting a possible common cause with erectile dysfunction. Tadalafil was considered then rejected by NICE in the UK for the treatment of symptoms associated with BPH. In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved tadalafil to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and for the treatment of BPH and erectile dysfunction ED, when the conditions occur simultaneously.

                                     

5.6. Management Others

Antimuscarinics such as tolterodine may also be used, especially in combination with alpha blockers. They act by decreasing acetylcholine effects on the smooth muscle of the bladder, thus helping control symptoms of an overactive bladder.

Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors such as sildenafil citrate show some symptomatic relief, suggesting a possible common cause with erectile dysfunction. Tadalafil was considered then rejected by NICE in the UK for the treatment of symptoms associated with BPH. In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved tadalafil to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and for the treatment of BPH and erectile dysfunction ED, when the conditions occur simultaneously.

                                     

5.7. Management Self-catheterization

Intermittent urinary catheterization is used to relieve the bladder in people with urinary retention. Self-catheterization is an option in BPH when it is difficult or impossible to completely empty the bladder. Urinary tract infection is the most common complication of intermittent catheterization. Several techniques and types of catheter are available, including sterile single-use and clean multiple use catheters, but, based on current information, none is superior to others in reducing the incidence of urinary tract infection.

                                     

5.8. Management Surgery

If medical treatment is not effective, surgery may be performed. Surgical techniques used include the following:

  • Open prostatectomy: not usually performed nowadays, even if results are very good.
  • Transurethral resection of the prostate TURP: the gold standard. TURP is thought to be the most effective approach for improving urinary symptoms and urinary flow, however, this surgical procedure may be associated with complications in up to 20% of men. Surgery carries some risk of complications, such as retrograde ejaculation most commonly, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urethral strictures.
  • Photoselective laser vaporization of the prostate PVP: common treatment.
  • Transurethral incision of the prostate TUIP: rarely performed; the technique is similar to TURP but less definitive.
                                     

5.9. Management Endovascular

The latest alternative to surgical treatment is arterial embolization, an endovascular procedure performed in interventional radiology. Through catheters, embolic agents are released in the main branches of the prostatic artery, in order to induce a decrease in the size of the prostate gland, thus reducing the urinary symptoms.

                                     

5.10. Management Transurethral microwave thermotherapy

Transurethral microwave thermotherapy TUMT is an outpatient procedure that is less invasive compared to surgery and involves using microwaves heat to shrink prostate tissue that is enlarged. TUMT may be effective at safely improving symptoms, however, TUMT does not appear to be as effective as a surgical approaches such as TURP.

                                     

5.11. Management Alternative medicine

While herbal remedies are commonly used, a 2016 review found them to be no better than placebo. Saw palmetto extract from Serenoa repens, while one of the most commonly used, is no better than placebo in both symptom relief and decreasing prostate size. Other ineffective herbal medicines include beta-sitosterol from Hypoxis rooperi African star grass, pygeum extracted from the bark of Prunus africana, pumpkin seeds Cucurbita pepo and stinging nettle Urtica dioica root. A systematic review of Chinese herbal medicines found that the quality of studies was insufficient to indicate any superiority over Western medicines.

                                     

6. Epidemiology

Globally, benign prostatic hyperplasia affects about 210 million males as of 2010 6% of the population.

The prostate gets larger in most men as they get older. For a symptom-free man of 46 years, the risk of developing BPH over the next 30 years is 45%. Incidence rates increase from 3 cases per 1000 man-years at age 45–49 years, to 38 cases per 1000 man-years by the age of 75–79 years. While the prevalence rate is 2.7% for men aged 45–49, it increases to 24% by the age of 80 years.

                                     
  • need to be performed for benign prostatic hyperplasia Surgical techniques include Transurethral resection of the prostate TURP for many decades regarded
  • known clinical forms of hyperplasia or conditions leading to hyperplasia are: Benign prostatic hyperplasia also known as prostate enlargement. Cushing s
  • men. Prostate Prostate cancer Benign prostatic hyperplasia Urinary retention Lower urinary tract symptoms Guidelines on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia European
  • Prostatic artery embolization PAE, or prostate artery embolisation is a developing non - surgical technique for treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy
  • incision of the prostate TUIP or TIP is a surgical procedure for treating prostate gland enlargement benign prostatic hyperplasia Transurethral incision
  • Benign tumor Outside oncology Benign intracranial hypertension Benign myalgic encephalomyelitis Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo Benign prostatic
  • symptoms resulting from prostate enlargement benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH It uses injections of steam to remove obstructive prostate tissue from the inside
  • gloved finger. Transurethral needle ablation can be used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH Some clinical studies have reported that TUNA is safe
  • by benign prostatic hyperplasia It is an alternative treatment to pharmacotherapy such as alpha blockers, transurethral resection of the prostate TURP
  • prostatic congestion feeling the urge to urinate frequently. Benign prostatic hyperplasia Blue balls Chronic prostatitis infection of the prostate
  • compared to no treatment on prostate volume, urinary symptoms and quality of life in men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia BPH Effect of the physiotherapeutic
  • alpha - 1 - adrenergic receptors. They are mainly used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH hypertension and post - traumatic stress disorder. Alpha - 1