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Black Combe Parkrun

Black Combe Parkrun is a Parkrun that takes place every Saturday morning at 9am inside HMP Haverigg, Cumbria, England. The event was the first Parkrun to take place within the grounds of a prison.

Cardiff Parkrun

Cardiff Parkrun is a Parkrun event that takes place every Saturday morning at 9am in Cardiff, Wales. The Parkrun was the first in Wales and has become the second largest in the UK. The run was started on 16 Feb 2008 and celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2018 with its largest ever attendance.

Endurance running hypothesis

The endurance running hypothesis is the hypothesis that the evolution of certain human characteristics can be explained as adaptations to long-distance running. The hypothesis suggests that endurance running played an important role for early hominins in obtaining food. Researchers have proposed that endurance running began as an adaptation for scavenging and later for persistence hunting.

Pace (speed)

All timely arts – music, dance, drama, and film – are enormously concerned with pacing – with rhythm or tempo. As the film director translates events in a script into actions that make up scenes and sequences, that is, as the director shapes the actors performances and stages the other actions in front of the camera, one of his paramount concerns is pacing, making the action swell, subside, and swell again. The director does this to keep the scene from losing its energy and intensity. Later, after the shooting is over, the director, working with the film editor, will further control, const ...


A paceband is a wristband, sometimes made of a strip of waterproof paper, that lists expected split times for a running race. When used in conjunction with a stopwatch, a paceband can assist athletes in maintaining a steady pace throughout the race. This is the most efficient racing pace from a cardiovascular and muscle energy perspective. Erratic running speeds, particularly the urge to sprint early in a race while feeling fresh, consume energy inefficiently. A glance at the paceband and stopwatch as each distance marker is passed allows the athlete to quickly determine if they are runnin ...

Pronation of the foot

Pronation is a natural movement of the foot that occurs during foot landing while running or walking. Composed of three cardinal plane components: subtalar eversion, ankle dorsiflexion, and forefoot abduction, these three distinct motions of the foot occur simultaneously during the pronation phase. Pronation is a normal, desirable, and necessary component of the gait cycle. Pronation is the first half of the stance phase, whereas supination starts the propulsive phase as the heel begins to lift off the ground.

Running energetics

Running energetics is the study of the energy cost of running. It is clear in the vast majority of species that as running speed increases the energetic cost of running increases. It also has long been known that between and within species variability exists in the energy cost of running a given speed. This variability has led to the study of biomechanical or physiological factors that may be predictive of the energy cost to run both between and within species. In humans there is evidence that the cost to run at a given speed may be predictive of endurance performance. As a result, it has ...

Running injuries

Running injuries affect about half of runners annually. The frequency of various RRI depend on the type of running, as runners vary significantly in factors such as speed and mileage. RRI can be both acute and chronic. Many of the common injuries that plague runners are chronic, developing over a longer period of time, as opposed to injury caused by sudden trauma, such as strains. These are often the result of overuse. Common overuse injuries include stress fractures, Achilles tendinitis, Iliotibial band syndrome, Patellofemoral pain, and plantar fasciitis. Proper running form is important ...

Second wind

Second wind is a phenomenon in distance running, such as marathons or road running, whereby an athlete who is out of breath and too tired to continue suddenly finds the strength to press on at top performance with less exertion. The feeling may be similar to that of a "runners high", the most obvious difference being that the runners high occurs after the race is over. Some scientists believe the second wind to be a result of the body finding the proper balance of oxygen to counteract the buildup of lactic acid in the muscles. Others claim second winds are due to endorphin production. Heav ...