# ⓘ Law, principle. A law is a universal principle that describes the fundamental nature of something, the universal properties and the relationships between things ..

## ⓘ Law (principle)

A law is a universal principle that describes the fundamental nature of something, the universal properties and the relationships between things, or a description that purports to explain these principles and relationships.

## 1. Laws of nature

For example, physical laws such as the law of gravity or scientific laws attempt to describe the fundamental nature of the universe itself. Laws of mathematics and logic describe the nature of rational thought and inference.

Within most fields of study, and in science in particular, the elevation of some principle of that field to the status of law usually takes place after a very long time during which the principle is used and tested and verified; though in some fields of study such laws are simply postulated as a foundation and assumed. Mathematical laws are somewhere in between: they are often arbitrary and unproven in themselves, but they are sometimes judged by how useful they are in making predictions about the real world. However, they ultimately rely on arbitrary axioms.

## 2. Laws of fundamentals in mathematics

Some fundamental law of mathematics was introduced by Harsha.

First law of fundamentals: If we consider k as a constant and a, b & c are any real numbers of which the product of a and b is c but the product of a k {\displaystyle {\frac {a}{k}}} and b k {\displaystyle {\frac {b}{k}}} is not equal to c k {\displaystyle {\frac {c}{k}}}.

Complemantry of first law of fundamentals: As per the first law a, b & c are any real numbers and k is constant the product of a and b is c,then the product of a k {\displaystyle {\frac {a}{k}}} and b k {\displaystyle {\frac {b}{k}}} is equal to c k 2 {\displaystyle {\frac {c}{k^{2}}}}.

Second law of fundamentals: If we consider a, b & c are any real numbers and k be any constant the division of a and b is c and the division of a k {\displaystyle {\frac {a}{k}}} and b k {\displaystyle {\frac {b}{k}}} is not equal to c k {\displaystyle {\frac {c}{k}}} but equal to c.

## 3. Laws in social sciences

Laws of economics are an attempt in modelization of economic behavior. Marxism criticized the belief in eternal laws of economics, which it considered a product of the dominant ideology. It claimed that in fact, those so-called laws of economics were only the historical laws of capitalism, that is of a particular historical social formation. With the advent, in the 20th century, of the application of mathematical, statistical, and experimental techniques to economics, economic theory matured into a corpus of knowledge rooted in the scientific method rather than in philosophical argument.

## 4. Miscellaneous

Finally, the term is sometimes applied to less rigorous ideas that may be interesting observations or relationships, practical or ethical guidelines also called rules of thumb, and even humorous parodies of such laws.

Examples of scientific laws include Boyles law of gases, conservation laws, Ohms law, and others. Laws of other fields of study include Occams razor as a principle of philosophy and Says law in economics. Examples of observed phenomena often described as laws include the Titius-Bode law of planetary positions, Zipfs law of linguistics, Thomas Malthuss Principle of Population or Malthusian Growth Model, Moores law of technological growth. Other laws are pragmatic and observational, such as the law of unintended consequences.

Some humorous parodies of such laws include adages such as Murphys law and its many variants, and Godwins Law of Internet conversations.

• A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law it is a rule that has to be or usually is to be followed, or
• The Pareto principle also known as the 80 20 rule, the law of the vital few, or the principle of factor sparsity states that, for many events, roughly
• In logic, the law of excluded middle or the principle of excluded middle states that for any proposition, either that proposition is true or its negation
• logic, the law of non - contradiction LNC also known as the law of contradiction, principle of non - contradiction PNC or the principle of contradiction
• Pascal s law also Pascal s principle or the principle of transmission of fluid - pressure is a principle in fluid mechanics given by Blaise Pascal that
• Graham s law Lamm equation Archie s law Buys - Ballot s law Birch s law Byerlee s law Principle of original horizontality Law of superposition Principle of lateral
• In physics, the principle of relativity is the requirement that the equations describing the laws of physics have the same form in all admissible frames
• Play media In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli s principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in static pressure
• Proportionality is a general principle in criminal law used to convey the idea that the severity of the punishment of an offender should fit the seriousness
• equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces. Archimedes principle is a law of physics fundamental to fluid mechanics. It was formulated by Archimedes
• The harm principle holds that the actions of individuals should only be limited to prevent harm to other individuals. John Stuart Mill articulated this
• In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and Albert Einstein s observation