ⓘ Cultural universal. A cultural universal, as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Levi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, ..

                                     

ⓘ Cultural universal

A cultural universal, as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Levi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide. Taken together, the whole body of cultural universals is known as the human condition. Evolutionary psychologists hold that behaviors or traits that occur universally in all cultures are good candidates for evolutionary adaptations. Some anthropological and sociological theorists that take a cultural relativist perspective may deny the existence of cultural universals: the extent to which these universals are "cultural" in the narrow sense, or in fact biologically inherited behavior is an issue of "nature versus nurture".

                                     

1. Donald Browns list in Human Universals

In his book Human Universals 1991, Donald Brown defines human universals as comprising "those features of culture, society, language, behavior, and psyche for which there are no known exception", providing a list of hundreds of items he suggests as universal. Among the cultural universals listed by Donald Brown are:

                                     

2. Non-nativist explanations

The observation of the same or similar behavior in different cultures does not prove that they are the results of a common underlying psychological mechanism. One possibility is that they may have been invented independently due to a common practical problem.

Since any cultures that have been studied by anthropologists have had contact with at least the anthropologists that studied it, and anthropological research ethics slows the studies down so that other groups unbound by such ethics, often at least locally represented by people of the same skin color as the supposedly isolated tribe but significantly culturally globalized, reach the tribe before the anthropologists do, no truly uncontacted culture has ever been scientifically studied. This allows outside influence to be an explanation for cultural universals as well. This does not preclude multiple independent inventions of civilization and is therefore not the same thing as hyperdiffusionism, it merely means that cultural universals are not proof of innateness.

                                     

3. Bibliography

  • Bourguignon, Erika; Greenbaum Ucko, Lenora 1973. Diversity and Homogeneity in World Societies. New Haven, Connecticut: HRAF Press. ISBN 978-0875363301.
  • Joseph H. Greenberg, et al. 1978 Universals of Human Language, 4 vols. Stanford University Press.
  • Steven Pinker 2002, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature, New York: Penguin Putnam.
  • George P. Murdock 1945, "The Common Denominator of Culture," in The Science of Man in the World Crisis, Ralph Linton ed. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Charles E. Osgood, William S May, and Murray S Miron 1975 Cross-Cultural Universals of Affective Meaning Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  • Charles D. Laughlin and Eugene G. dAquili 1974 Biogenetic Structuralism. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Brown, Donald 1991. Human Universals. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 978-0070082090.
  • Rik Pinxten 1976 "Epistemic Universals: A Contribution to Cognitive Anthropology," in Universalism Versus Relativism in Language and Thought, R. Pinxten ed. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Claude Levi-Strauss 1966 The Savage Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


                                     
  • Small Faces song 1968 Universal Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark song 1996 Universal metaphysics Cultural universal a trait common to all cultures
  • position in 2001, asserting in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity that .. cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity
  • The Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity is a declaration adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
  • world. In its Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, UNESCO notes the importance of States adopting inclusive ways of encouraging cultural diversity
  • revealed that human experience was mediated not only by universal structures, but by particular cultural structures as well. The philosopher and linguist Wilhelm
  • Cultural liberalism is a liberal view of society that stresses the freedom of individuals from cultural norms and in the words of Henry David Thoreau
  • endeavour, and social order. Whether universal values exist is an unproven conjecture of moral philosophy and cultural anthropology, though it is clear that
  • A linguistic universal is a pattern that occurs systematically across natural languages, potentially true for all of them. For example, All languages
  • Universal Darwinism also known as generalized Darwinism, universal selection theory, or Darwinian metaphysics refers to a variety of approaches that
  • impede rather than help the scientific search for universal principles in psychology, cross - cultural psychologists are turning more to the study of how
  • Universal Parks Resorts, also known as Universal Studios Theme Parks or solely Universal Theme Parks, is the theme park unit of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary
  • ask whether Jean Piaget s stages of development are universal across a variety of cultures, a cultural psychologist would be interested in how the social
  • Cultural history combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical