ⓘ Labor ..

Wage labour

Wage labour also wage labor in American English is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells their labour power under a formal or informal employment contract. These transactions usually occur in a labour market where wages or salaries are market-determined. In exchange for the money paid as wages usual for short-term work-contracts or salaries in permanent employment contracts, the work product generally becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the U ...

Affective labor

Affective labor is work carried out that is intended to produce or modify emotional experiences in people. This is in contrast to emotional labor, which is intended to produce or modify ones own emotional experiences. Coming out of Autonomist feminist critiques of marginalized and so-called "invisible" labor, it has been the focus of critical discussions by, e.g., Antonio Negri, Michael Hardt, Juan Martin Prada, and Michael Betancourt. Although its history is as old as that of labor itself, affective labor has been of increasing importance to modern economies since the emergence of mass cu ...

Departmentalization

Departmentalization refers to the process of grouping activities into departments. Division of labour creates specialists who need coordination. This coordination is facilitated by grouping specialists together in departments.

Deskilling

Deskilling is the process by which skilled labor within an industry or economy is eliminated by the introduction of technologies operated by semiskilled or unskilled workers. This results in cost savings due to lower investment in human capital, and reduces barriers to entry, weakening the bargaining power of the human capital. Deskilling is the decline in working positions through the machinery introduced to separate workers from the production process. Deskilling can also refer to individual workers specifically. The term refers to a person becoming less proficient over time. Examples of ...

Dignity of labour

Social reformers such as Basava and his contemporary Sharanas, as well as Mahatma Gandhi, were prominent advocates of the dignity of labor. The dignity of labor is one of the major themes in Christian ethics, and as such, it is upheld by the Anglican Communion, in Catholic social teaching, in Methodist principles, and in Reformed theology. In Roman Catholicism, usually titled "The dignity of work and the rights of workers" the affirmation of the dignity of human labor is found in several papal encyclicals, most notably Pope John Paul IIs Laborem Exercens, published September 15, 1981. Simp ...

Econodynamics

Econodynamics is an empirical science that studies emergences, motion and disappearance of value - a specific concept that is used for description of the processes of production and distribution of wealth. Econodynamics is based on the achievements of classical political economy and neo-classical economics and has been using the methods of phenomenological science to investigate evolution of economic system. Econodynamics has been proposing methods of analysis and forecasting of economic processes. The comprehensive review of the problems of econodynamics is given recently by Vladimir Pokr ...