ⓘ Andrology ..


Andrology is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men. It is the counterpart to gynaecology, which deals with medical issues which are specific to female health, especially reproductive and urologic health.


The acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the spermatozoa of many animals including humans. It is a cap-like structure derived from the Golgi apparatus. In Eutherian mammals the acrosome contains digestive enzymes. These enzymes break down the outer membrane of the ovum, called the zona pellucida, allowing the haploid nucleus in the sperm cell to join with the haploid nucleus in the ovum. This shedding of the acrosome, or acrosome reaction, can be stimulated in vitro by substances a sperm cell may encounter naturally such as progesterone or follicular ...

Acrosome reaction

During fertilization, a sperm must first fuse with the plasma membrane and then penetrate the female egg cell in order to fertilize it. Fusing to the egg cell usually causes little problem, whereas penetrating through the eggs hard shell or extracellular matrix can present more of a problem to the sperm. Therefore, sperm cells go through a process known as the acrosome reaction which is the reaction that occurs in the acrosome of the sperm as it approaches the egg. The acrosome is a cap-like structure over the anterior half of the sperms head. As the sperm approaches the zona pellucida of ...

Antisperm antibodies

Antisperm antibodies ASA are immunoglobulins of IgG, IgA, and/or IgM, which are directed against sperm antigens. ASA can be detected in ejaculate, cervical mucus, follicular fluid, and blood serum.


The baculum is a bone found in the penis of many placental mammals. It is absent in the human penis, but present in the penises of other primates, such as the gorilla and chimpanzee. The bone is located above the male urethra, and it aids sexual reproduction by maintaining sufficient stiffness during sexual penetration. The homologue to the baculum in female mammals is known as the baubellum or os clitoridis, a bone in the clitoris.

Boar taint

Boar taint is the offensive odor or taste that can be evident during the cooking or eating of pork or pork products derived from non-castrated male pigs once they reach puberty. Boar taint is found in around 20% of entire male finishing pigs. Skatole may also be detected in gilts, but this is linked with faecal contamination of the skin. Studies show that about 75% of consumers are sensitive to boar taint so it is necessary for pork producers to control it.