ⓘ Health economics ..

Case mix

Case mix, also casemix and patient mix, is a term used within healthcare as a synonym for cohort; essentially, a case mix groups statistically related patients. An example case mix might be male patients under the age of 50, who present with a myocardial infarction and also undergo emergency coronary artery bypass surgery. At a local level, such as a single hospital; the data within a case mix may relate to the activity of an individual consultant, a specific speciality or a particular unit such as a ward. On a wider level; it is possible to compare the case mix of hospitals, regions, and ...

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination

The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination is a health services research centre based at the University of York, England. CRD was established in January 1994, and aims to provide research-based information for evidence-based medicine. CRD carries out systematic reviews and meta-analyses of healthcare interventions, and disseminates the results of research to decision-makers in the NHS. CRD produces three databases: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects DARE NHS Economic Evaluation Database NHS EED Health Technology Assessment Database HTA Database These are freely available from the CR ...

Choosing Healthplans All Together

"Choosing Healthplans All Together" is the name given to a simulation exercise in which players decide which benefit types they would like to include in their health insurance package, and what level of service they prioritize. This activity emphasizes the critical need to design health insurance benefit packages based on local information. The core goal of this exercise is to ascertain which benefit package best reflects the priorities of the group of players within a finite budget allocated for health insurance and within the circumstances in which the participants live. The CHAT simulat ...

Clinical peer review

Clinical peer review, also known as medical peer review is the process by which health care professionals, including those in nursing and pharmacy, evaluate each others clinical performance. A discipline-specific process may be referenced accordingly. Today, clinical peer review is most commonly done in hospitals, but may also occur in other practice settings including surgical centers and large group practices. The primary purpose of peer review is to improve the quality and safety of care. Secondarily, it serves to reduce the organizations vicarious malpractice liability and meet regulat ...

Cochrane (organisation)

Cochrane is a British international charitable organisation formed to organise medical research findings to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions involving health professionals, patients and policy makers. It includes 53 review groups that are based at research institutions worldwide. Cochrane has approximately 30.000 volunteer experts from around the world. The group conducts systematic reviews of health-care interventions and diagnostic tests and publishes them in the Cochrane Library. According to the Library, articles are available via one-click access, but some ...

Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing

The Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing is the principal department of the Colorado state government responsible for administering the Medicaid and Child Health Plan Plus programs as well as a variety of other programs for Colorados low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities.

Comparative effectiveness research

Comparative effectiveness research is the direct comparison of existing health care interventions to determine which work best for which patients and which pose the greatest benefits and harms. The core question of comparative effectiveness research is which treatment works best, for whom, and under what circumstances. Engaging various stakeholders in this process, while difficult, makes research more applicable through providing information that improves patient decision making. The Institute of Medicine committee has defined CER as "the generation and synthesis of evidence that compares ...

Cost of HIV treatment

The cost of HIV treatment is a complicated issue with an extremely wide range of costs due to varying factors such as the type of antiretroviral therapy and the country in which the treatment is administered. The first line therapy of HIV, or the initial antiretroviral drug regimen for an HIV-infected patient, is generally cheaper than subsequent second-line or third-line therapies. There is also a great variability of drug prices among low, middle, and high income countries. In general, low-income countries have the lowest cost of antiretroviral therapy, while middle- and high-income tend ...

Cost sharing

In health care, cost sharing occurs when patients pay for a portion of health care costs not covered by health insurance. The "out-of-pocket" payment varies among healthcare plans and depends on whether or not the patient chooses to use a healthcare provider who is contracted with the healthcare plans network. Examples of out-of-pocket payments involved in cost sharing include copays, deductibles, and coinsurance. In accounting, cost sharing or matching means that portion of project or program costs not borne by the funding agency. It includes all contributions, including cash and in-kind, ...

Cost-effectiveness analysis

Cost-effectiveness analysis is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes of different courses of action. Cost-effectiveness analysis is distinct from cost–benefit analysis, which assigns a monetary value to the measure of effect. Cost-effectiveness analysis is often used in the field of health services, where it may be inappropriate to monetize health effect. Typically the CEA is expressed in terms of a ratio where the denominator is a gain in health from a measure and the numerator is the cost associated with the health gain. The most commonly used outcome ...