ⓘ Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water. Disease can be spread while bathing, washing, drinking wa ..

                                     

ⓘ Waterborne diseases

Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water. Disease can be spread while bathing, washing, drinking water, or by eating food exposed to contaminated water. While diarrhea and vomiting are the most commonly reported symptoms of waterborne illness, other symptoms can include skin, ear, respiratory, or eye problems.

Various forms of waterborne diarrheal disease are the most prominent examples, and affect children in developing countries most dramatically. According to the World Health Organization, waterborne diseases account for an estimated 3.6% of the total DALY disability- adjusted life year global burden of disease, and cause about 1.5 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organization estimates that 58% of that burden, or 842.000 deaths per year, is attributable to a lack of safe drinking water supply, sanitation and hygiene summarized as WASH.

The term waterborne disease is reserved largely for infections that predominantly are transmitted through contact with or consumption of infected water. Trivially, many infections may be transmitted by microbes or parasites that accidentally, possibly as a result of exceptional circumstances, have entered the water, but the fact that there might be an occasional freak infection need not mean that it is useful to categorise the resulting disease as "waterborne". Nor is it common practice to refer to diseases such as malaria as "waterborne" just because mosquitoes have aquatic phases in their life cycles, or because treating the water they inhabit happens to be an effective strategy in control of the mosquitoes that are the vectors.

Microorganisms causing diseases that characteristically are waterborne prominently include protozoa and bacteria, many of which are intestinal parasites, or invade the tissues or circulatory system through walls of the digestive tract. Various other waterborne diseases are caused by viruses. In spite of philosophical difficulties associated with defining viruses as "organisms", it is practical and convenient to regard them as microorganisms in this connection.

Yet other important classes of water-borne diseases are caused by metazoan parasites. Typical examples include certain Nematoda, that is to say "roundworms". As an example of water-borne Nematode infections, one important waterborne nematodal disease is Dracunculiasis. It is acquired by swallowing water in which certain copepoda occur that act as vectors for the Nematoda. Anyone swallowing a copepod that happens to be infected with Nematode larvae in the genus Dracunculus, becomes liable to infection. The larvae cause guinea worm disease.

Another class of waterborne metazoan pathogens are certain members of the Schistosomatidae, a family of blood flukes. They usually infect victims that make skin contact with the water. Blood flukes are pathogens that cause Schistosomiasis of various forms, more or less seriously affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide.

Long before modern studies had established the germ theory of disease, or any advanced understanding of the nature of water as a vehicle for transmitting disease, traditional beliefs had cautioned against the consumption of water, rather favouring processed beverages such as beer, wine and tea. For example, in the camel caravans that crossed Central Asia along the Silk Road, the explorer Owen Lattimore noted, "The reason we drank so much tea was because of the bad water. Water alone, unboiled, is never drunk. There is a superstition that it causes blisters on the feet."

                                     

1. Socioeconomic impact

Waterborne diseases can have a significant impact on the economy, locally as well as internationally. People who are infected by a waterborne disease are usually confronted with related costs and not seldom with a huge financial burden. This is especially the case in less developed countries. The financial losses are mostly caused by e.g. costs for medical treatment and medication, costs for transport, special food, and by the loss of manpower. Many families must even sell their land to pay for treatment in a proper hospital. On average, a family spends about 10% of the monthly households income per person infected.

                                     

2.1. Surveillance In the United States

The Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System WBDOSS is the principal database used to identify the causative agents, deficiencies, water systems, and sources associated with waterborne disease and outbreaks in the United States. Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists CSTE, and the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA have maintained this surveillance system for collecting and reporting data on "waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water, drinking water, environmental, and undetermined exposures to water." "Data from WBDOSS have supported EPA efforts to develop drinking water regulations and have provided guidance for CDC’s recreational water activities."

WBDOSS relies on complete and accurate data from public health departments in individual states, territories, and other U.S. jurisdictions regarding waterborne disease and outbreak activity. In 2009, reporting to the WBDOSS transitioned from a paper form to the electronic National Outbreak Reporting System NORS. Annual or biennial surveillance reports of the data collected by the WBDOSS have been published in CDC reports from 1971 to 1984; since 1985, surveillance data have been published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report MMWR.

                                     
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  • Prevention CDC The WBDOSS receives data about waterborne disease outbreaks and single cases of waterborne diseases of public health importance for example
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  • polluted with fecal material, humans can be infected with waterborne diseases or soil - transmitted diseases Fecal contamination of food is another form of fecal - oral
  • deaths: 2, 500 2009 est. Major infectious diseases degree of risk: high food or waterborne diseases bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A
  • report waterborne disease outbreaks to the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Reporting System WBDOSS The transition to electronic waterborne disease outbreak
  • Viruses are a major cause of human waterborne and water - related diseases Waterborne diseases are caused by water that is contaminated by human and animal
  • specific disease groups: Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare - associated Infections Emerging and Vector - borne Diseases Food - and Waterborne Diseases and
  • Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. The diseases are less prevalent in temperate climates
  • otherwise expensive. There are waterborne diseases respiratory pneumonia, malaria as well as an increase in cases of airborne diseases due to the poor sewerage
  • epidemiology of food and waterborne diseases zoonoses and ecosystem health. He is best known for his work on animal and human infectious diseases in relation to