ⓘ Tumor ..

Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumour

Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumour is a subtype of pulmonary carcinoid tumor. It is an uncommon low-grade malignant lung mass that is most often in the central airways of the lung. It is also known as "atypical lung carcinoid tumour", atypical lung carcinoid" or "moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma". It is a more aggressive than typical carcinoid tumors: nodal metastases in 70% vs. 5%. The 5 year survival is 49-69%. Atypical carcinoid tumors have increased mitotic activity 2-10 per 10 HPF, nuclear pleomorphism or foci of necrosis.

Cancer/testis antigens

Cancer/testis antigens are a group of proteins united by their importance in development and in cancer immunotherapy. In general, expression of these proteins is restricted to male germ cells in the adult animal. However, in cancer these developmental antigens are often re-expressed and can serve as a locus of immune activation. Thus, they are often classified as tumor antigens. The expression of CT antigens in various malignancies is heterogeneous and often correlates with tumor progression. CT antigens have been described in melanoma, liver cancer, lung cancer, bladder cancer, and pediat ...

Cancer-associated fibroblast

A cancer-associated fibroblast is a cell type within the tumor microenvironment that promotes tumorigenic features by initiating the remodelling of the extracellular matrix or by secreting cytokines. CAFs are a complex and abundant cell type within the tumour microenvironment; the number cannot decrease, as they are unable to undergo apoptosis. CAFs have been found to be abundant in a tumour stroma.Myofibroblasts and fibroblasts make up CAFs. The functions of these CAFs have been known to stimulate angiogenesis, supporting the formation of tumours and thus proliferation of cancer cell and ...

CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity

Understanding of the antitumor immunity role of CD4+ T cells has grown substantially since the late 1990s. CD4+ T cells play an important role in modulating immune responses to pathogens and tumor cells, and are important in orchestrating overall immune responses.

Central nervous system tumor

A central nervous system tumor is an abnormal growth of cells from the tissues of the brain or spinal cord. CNS tumor is a generic term encompassing over 120 distinct tumor types. Common symptoms of CNS tumors include vomiting, headache, changes in vision, nausea, and seizures. A CNS tumor can be detected and classified via neurological examination, medical imaging, such as x-ray imaging, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, or after analysis of a biopsy.


Friability, the condition of being friable, describes the tendency of a solid substance to break into smaller pieces under duress or contact, especially by rubbing. The opposite of friable is indurate. Substances that are designated hazardous, such as asbestos or crystalline silica, are often said to be friable if small particles are easily dislodged and become airborne, and hence respirable able to enter human lungs, thereby posing a health hazard. Tougher substances, such as concrete, may also be mechanically ground down and reduced to finely divided mineral dust. However, such substance ...


ⓘ Tumor

  • but not always forms a mass. When it forms a mass, it may be called a tumor ICD - 10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in
  • Tumor antigen is an antigenic substance produced in tumor cells, i.e., it triggers an immune response in the host. Tumor antigens are useful tumor markers
  • benign non - cancerous tumors Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors which start within the brain, and secondary tumors which have spread
  • A tumor suppressor gene, or anti - oncogene, is a gene that regulates a cell during cell division and replication. If the cell grows uncontrollably, it
  • Wilms tumor also known as nephroblastoma, is a cancer of the kidneys that typically occurs in children, rarely in adults. It is named after Max Wilms
  • A tumor marker is a biomarker found in blood, urine, or body tissues that can be elevated by the presence of one or more types of cancer. There are many
  • Neuroendocrine tumors NETs are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine hormonal and nervous systems. Many are benign, while some are malignant
  • A mammary tumor is a neoplasm originating in the mammary gland. It is a common finding in older female dogs and cats that are not spayed, but they are
  • Glomus tumor was also the name formerly and incorrectly used for a tumor now called a paraganglioma. A glomus tumor also known as a solitary glomus
  • A Krukenberg tumor refers to a malignancy in the ovary that metastasized from a primary site, classically the gastrointestinal tract, although it can