ⓘ Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete in cross-country skiing and ski jumping. Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics and the FIS Nordic C ..

                                     

ⓘ Nordic combined

Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete in cross-country skiing and ski jumping. Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics and the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup are ongoing.

                                     

1. History

The first major competition was held in 1892 in Oslo at the first Holmenkollen ski jump. King Olav V of Norway was an able jumper and competed in the Holmenkollen Ski Festival in the 1920s. It was in the 1924 Winter Olympics and has been on the program ever since. Until the 1950s, the cross-country race was held first, followed by the ski jumping. This was reversed as the difference in the cross-country race tended to be too big to overcome in ski jumping. The sport has been dominated by the Norwegians, supported by the Finns. It was not until 1960 that the Nordic grip on this discipline was broken when West German Georg Thoma won the gold medal at the 1960 Winter Olympics.

It was decided in early-November 2016 that womens competitions were to be established on FIS-level starting during the second half of the 2010s with inclusion at world championships starting in 2021 and at the Olympic Winter Games in 2022. But Olympic debut for women in 2022 was cancelled by IOC in July 2018 who was asking more development time for this discipline and then likely been added in 2026. In May 2018 the FIS Congress made several decisions regarding the inclusion of women in the sport of Nordic Combined. As of 2019, women will be officially included in FIS Junior World Championships. It was confirmed that 2021 will mark the start of the FIS World Championship program for women senior level. 2018 marks the second year of the Continental Cup program for women, which will include a total of 12 events.

                                     

2. Competition

Formats and variations currently used in the World Cup are:

  • Day 3: 2 jumps & 20 km 12.43 mi Final Individual Gundersen Top 30 from Day 2s competition
  • Individual Gundersen: competition starts with one competition jump from a normal or large hill. Later on the same day, the 10 km 6.21 mi cross-country race takes place. The winner starts at 00:00:00 and all other athletes start with time disadvantages according to their jumping score. The first to cross the finish line is the winner. A variation of this is the Final Individual Gundersen, consisting of two jumps and 15 km 9.32 mi of cross-country skiing in free technique.
  • Day 1: 1 jump & 10 km 6.21 mi Prologue
  • Day 2: 1 jump & 15 km 9.32 mi Individual Gundersen Top 50 from Day 1s competition
  • Nordic Combined Triple: introduced in the 2013–14 FIS Nordic Combined World Cup, it features three different events on three days and one overall winner who is awarded extra World Cup points and prize money
  • Team Event: introduced in the 1980s, one team consists of four athletes who have one competition jump each. The total score of all four athletes determines the time disadvantages for the start of the ensuing 5 km 3.11 mi cross-country race. The first team to cross the finish line wins.
  • Team Sprint: teams consist of two athletes each. In the ski jumping part, every athlete makes one competition jump like in the Individual Gundersen or Team Event formats and the time behind for the start of the successive cross-country race. The team to arrive first at the finish line wins the competition.

Included in the rules but currently not used in World Cup:

  • Penalty Race: instead adding a time disadvantage, distance is added to the cross-country part.
  • Mass Start: the only format in which the cross-country part takes place before the ski jumping. All competitors start into a 10 km 6.21 mi cross-country race in free technique at the same time. The final cross-country times are then converted into points for the ski jumping part. The winner is determined in a points-based system.

Events in the Olympics are: the sprint K120 individual, ski jumping K90 70m, and Team/4x5km.

                                     

3. Equipment

  • Ski bindings: secure only the toe of the boot to the ski. In cross-country, it must be placed so that not more than 57% of the entire ski length is used as the front part. In jumping, a cord or aluminum post attaches the heel of the boot to the ski to prevent tips from dropping and/or wobbling of skis during flight.
  • Ski boot
  • For jumping, a high-backed, flexible yet firm boots with a low cut at the front, designed to allow the skier to lean forward during flight.
  • For cross-country a skating boot is used.
  • Skis: jumping skis may have a length of a maximum 145% of the total body height of the competitor. Cross-country skis may be up to 2 meters long.
  • Ski poles
  • Ski wax: glide wax for speed is used in both types, and kick wax is used in cross-country.
  • Ski suit and helmet
                                     
  • The Nordic combined events have been contested at the Winter Olympic Games since 1924. The first competition involved 18 km cross - country skiing, followed
  • Nordic combined at the 2002 Winter Olympics, consisted of three events held over ten days, from 9 February to 22 February. The ski jumping part took place
  • The FIS Nordic Combined World Cup is a Nordic combined competition organized yearly by International Ski Federation, representing the highest level in
  • The 2009 10 FIS Nordic Combined World Cup was the 27th world cup season, a combination of ski jumping and cross - country skiing organized by FIS. It started
  • The 2008 09 FIS Nordic Combined World Cup was the 26th world cup season, a combination of ski jumping and cross - country skiing organized by FIS. It began
  • Nordic combined at the 1998 Winter Olympics, consisted of two events, held from 13 February to 20 February. The ski jumping portion took place at Hakuba
  • Nordic combined at the 1994 Winter Olympics, consisted of two events, held from 18 February to 24 February. The ski jumping portion took place at Lysgårdsbakken
  • At the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, one Nordic combined event was contested. This marked the first time in Olympic history that the ski jumping portion
  • Nordic combined at the 1976 Winter Olympics, consisted of one event, held from 8 February to 9 February at Seefeld. Germany won all three medals, with
  • The 1999 00 FIS Nordic Combined World Cup was the 17th World Cup season, a combination of ski jumping and cross - country skiing organized by FIS. It started
  • Nordic combined at the 1968 Winter Olympics consisted of one event, held from 10 February to 12 February at Autrans. Athletes did three normal hill ski
  • Nordic combined at the 1972 Winter Olympics consisted of one event, held from 4 February to 5 February. The ski jumping portion took place at Miyanomori
  • Nordic combined at the 1956 Winter Olympics consisted of one event, held from 29 January to 31 January. The ski jumping portion took place at Trampolino