ⓘ General knowledge is information that has been accumulated over time through various mediums. It excludes specialized learning that can only be obtained with ex ..


ⓘ General knowledge

General knowledge is information that has been accumulated over time through various mediums. It excludes specialized learning that can only be obtained with extensive training and information confined to a single medium. General knowledge is an essential component of crystallized intelligence. It is strongly associated with general intelligence and with openness to experience.

Studies have found that people who are highly knowledgeable in a particular domain tend to be knowledgeable in many. General knowledge is thought to be supported by long-term semantic memory ability. General knowledge also supports schemata for textual understanding. In 2019, it was found in a survey that New Zealanders had "concerning" gaps in their general knowledge.


1.1. Individual differences Intelligence

High scorers on tests of general knowledge tend to also score highly on intelligence tests. IQ has been found to robustly predict general knowledge scores even after accounting for differences in age, sex, and five factor model personality traits. However, many general knowledge tests are designed to create a normal distribution of answers, creating a bell shaped curve.

General knowledge is also moderately associated with verbal ability, though only weakly or not at all with numerical and spatial ability. As with crystallized intelligence, general knowledge has been found to increase with age.


1.2. Individual differences Long-term semantic memory

General knowledge is stored as semantic memory. Most semantic memory is preserved through old age, though there are deficits in retrieval of certain specific words correlated with aging. In addition, stress or various emotional levels can negatively affect semantic memory retrieval.


1.3. Individual differences Personality

People high in general knowledge tend to be highly open to new experiences and in typical intellectual engagement. The relationship between openness to experience and general knowledge remains robust even when IQ is taken into account. People high in openness may be more motivated to engage in intellectual pursuits that increase their knowledge. Relationships between general knowledge and other five factor model traits tend to be weak and inconsistent. Though one study found that extraversion and neuroticism were negatively correlated with general knowledge, others found that they were unrelated. Inconsistent results have also been found for conscientiousness.


2. Predictor of achievement

A number of studies have assessed whether performance on a general knowledge test can predict achievement in particular areas, namely in academics, proofreading, and creativity.


2.1. Predictor of achievement Academic achievement

General knowledge has been found to predict exam results in a study of British schoolchildren. The study examined cognitive ability and personality predictors of exam performance and found that general knowledge was positively correlated with GCSE English, mathematics, and overall exam results. General knowledge test scores predicted exam results, even after controlling for IQ, five factor model personality traits, and learning styles.


2.2. Predictor of achievement Proofreading

General knowledge has been found to robustly predict proofreading skills in university students. A study found that proofreading had a larger correlation with general knowledge than with general intelligence, verbal reasoning, or openness to experience. In a multiple regression analysis using general knowledge, general intelligence, verbal reasoning, five factor personality traits, and learning styles as predictors, only general knowledge was a significant predictor.


2.3. Predictor of achievement Creativity

General knowledge has been found to have weak associations with measures of creativity. In a study examining contributions of personality and intelligence to creativity, general knowledge was positively correlated with tests of divergent thinking, but was unrelated to a biographical measure of creative achievement, self-rated creativity, or a composite measure of creativity. The relationship between general knowledge and divergent thinking became non-significant when controlling for fluid intelligence.


3. Game shows and quizzes

Many game shows use general knowledge questions. Game shows such as Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? and Fifteen to One centre their questions on general knowledge, while others shows focus questions more on specific subjects. Some shows ask questions both on specific subjects and on general knowledge, including Eggheads and Mastermind. In Mastermind, contestants choose their own "specialist subject" before answering general knowledge questions, whereas in Eggheads the subjects are chosen at random.

  • Domain knowledge is knowledge of a specific, specialized discipline or field, in contrast to general knowledge or domain - independent knowledge The term
  • Foundational knowledge the knowledge necessary for understanding or usefully applying further knowledge in a field. General knowledge information
  • Often, common knowledge does not need to be cited. Common knowledge is distinct from general knowledge In broader terms, common knowledge is used to refer
  • Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired
  • were the first knowledge - based systems. The original use of the term knowledge - base was to describe one of the two sub - systems of a knowledge - based system
  • Traditional knowledge indigenous knowledge and local knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous
  • The earliest work in computerized knowledge representation was focused on general problem solvers such as the General Problem Solver GPS system developed
  • General Intelligence and is a focus of the Paul Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence. The first AI program to address common sense knowledge was
  • The Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge Among the Chinese S.D.C.K. was founded in 1887 in Shanghai, China. It was founded and
  • Knowledge workers are workers whose main capital is knowledge Examples include programmers, physicians, pharmacists, architects, engineers, scientists