ⓘ Vaccination ..


Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism or virus in a weakened, live or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. In stimulating the bodys adaptive immunity, they help prevent sickness from an infectious disease. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due t ...

Active immunization

Active immunization is the induction of immunity after exposure to an antigen. Antibodies are created by the recipient and may be stored permanently. Active immunization can occur naturally when a microbe or other antigen is received by a person who has not yet come into contact with the microbe and has no pre-made antibodies for defense. The immune system will eventually create antibodies for the microbe, but this is a slow process and, if the microbe is deadly, there may not be enough time for the antibodies to be used. Artificial active immunization is where the microbe is injected into ...

Advance market commitments

An advance market commitment is a binding contract, typically offered by a government or other financial entity, used to guarantee a viable market for a product once it is successfully developed. Generally AMCs are used in circumstances where the cost of developing a new product is too high to be worthwhile for the private sector without a guarantee of a certain quantity of purchases in advance. As such, AMCs have been used in the creation of vaccines or other medicine with high up-front development costs. As a result of such a commitment, the market for vaccines or drugs for neglected dis ...

Adverse vaccine reactions in pets

A number of studies have demonstrated adverse reactions in pets after administering vaccines to both dogs and cats. Concern about adverse effects has led to revised guidelines that alter the recommended frequency and methods/locations for both vaccination of dogs and feline vaccination.

Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program

The Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program, is the name of the policy set forth by the U.S. federal government to immunize its military and certain civilian personnel with the BioThrax anthrax vaccine. It began in earnest in 1997 by the Clinton administration. Thereafter it ran into Food and Drug Administration and judicial obstacles. Over 8 million doses of BioThrax were administered to over 2 million U.S. military personnel as part of the program between March 1998 and June 2008.

Attenuated vaccine

An attenuated vaccine is a vaccine created by reducing the virulence of a pathogen, but still keeping it viable. Attenuation takes an infectious agent and alters it so that it becomes harmless or less virulent. These vaccines contrast to those produced by "killing" the virus.