ⓘ Scientific modeling ..

Superiority and inferiority ranking method

The superiority and inferiority ranking method is a multi-criteria decision making model which can handle real data and provides six different preference structures for the system user. MCDM is a sub-discipline of operations research that explicitly evaluates multiple conflicting criteria in decision making, both in daily life and in settings such as business, government and medicine.

Accelerator physics codes

A charged particle accelerator is a complex machine that takes elementary charged particles and accelerates them to very high energies. Accelerator physics is a field of physics encompassing all the aspects required to design and operate the equipment and to understand the resulting dynamics of the charged particles. There are software packages associated with each such domain. There are a large number of such codes. The 1990 edition of the Los Alamos Accelerator Code Groups compendium provides summaries of more than 200 codes. Certain of those codes are still in use today although many ar ...

Akaike information criterion

The Akaike information criterion is an estimator of out-of-sample prediction error and thereby relative quality of statistical models for a given set of data. Given a collection of models for the data, AIC estimates the quality of each model, relative to each of the other models. Thus, AIC provides a means for model selection. AIC is founded on information theory. When a statistical model is used to represent the process that generated the data, the representation will almost never be exact; so some information will be lost by using the model to represent the process. AIC estimates the rel ...

Accidental Adversaries

Accidental Adversaries is one of the ten system archetypes used in system dynamics modelling, or systems thinking. This archetype describes the degenerative pattern that develops when two subjects cooperating for a common goal, accidentally take actions that undermine each others success. It is similar to the escalation system archetype in terms of pattern behaviour that develops over time.

Attractiveness principle

Attractiveness Principle is one of System Dynamics archetypes. System archetypes describe common patterns of behavior in dynamic complex systems. Attractiveness principle is a variation of Limits to Growth archetype, with restrictions caused by multiple limits. The limiting factors here are each of different character and usually cannot be dealt with the same way and/or they cannot be all addressed.

Barnes–Hut simulation

The Barnes–Hut simulation is an approximation algorithm for performing an n -body simulation. It is notable for having order O compared to a direct-sum algorithm which would be O. The simulation volume is usually divided up into cubic cells via an octree in a three-dimensional space, so that only particles from nearby cells need to be treated individually, and particles in distant cells can be treated as a single large particle centered at the cells center of mass or as a low-order multipole expansion. This can dramatically reduce the number of particle pair interactions that must be compu ...


ⓘ Scientific modeling

  • Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify
  • meaning of components in the structure. A modeling language can be graphical or textual. Graphical modeling languages use a diagram technique with named
  • Systems modeling or system modeling is the interdisciplinary study of the use of models to conceptualize and construct systems in business and IT development
  • statistical modeling They are typically formulated as comparisons of several statistical models Common criteria for comparing models include the following:
  • philosophy of science, models of scientific inquiry have two functions: first, to provide a descriptive account of how scientific inquiry is carried out
  • ecological modeling CRC Press. pp. 403 404. ISBN 978 - 1 - 56670 - 202 - 7. Grant, William Edward Swannack, Todd M. 2008 Ecological modeling a common - sense
  • REEEM a scientific project modeling sustainable energy futures for Europe openmod - Open Energy Modelling Initiative Open Energy Modelling Initiative
  • of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises. Though diverse models for the
  • Pattern - oriented modeling POM is an approach to bottom - up complex systems analysis that was developed to model complex ecological and agent - based systems
  • mathematics, see catastrophe disambiguation Catastrophe modeling also known as cat modeling is the process of using computer - assisted calculations to
  • Model or modeling may refer to: Conceptual model a representation of a system using general rules and concepts Physical model or plastic model a physical