ⓘ Error measures ..

Bit error rate

In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors. The bit error rate BER is the number of bit errors per unit time. The bit error ratio also BER is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval. Bit error ratio is a unitless performance measure, often expressed as a percentage. The bit error probability p e is the expectation value of the bit error ratio. The bit er ...

Error term

In mathematics and statistics, an error term is an additive type of error. Common examples include: errors and residuals in statistics, e.g. in linear regression the error term in numerical integration

Errored second

In telecommunications and data communication systems, an errored second is an interval of a second during which any error whatsoever has occurred, regardless of whether that error was a single bit error, or a complete loss of communication for that entire second; the type of error is not important for the purpose of counting errored seconds. In communication systems with very low uncorrected bit error rates, such as modern fiber optic transmission systems, or systems with higher low-level error rates that are corrected using large amounts of forward error correction, errored seconds are of ...

Signal-to-noise ratio

Signal-to-noise ratio is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. SNR is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power, often expressed in decibels. A ratio higher than 1:1 indicates more signal than noise. While SNR is commonly quoted for electrical signals, it can be applied to any form of signal, for example isotope levels in an ice core, biochemical signaling between cells, or financial trading signals. Signal-to-noise ratio is sometimes used metaphorically to refer to the ratio of useful informati ...

SINAD

Signal-to-noise and distortion ratio is a measure of the quality of a signal from a communications device, often defined as S I N A D = P signal + P noise + P distortion P noise + P distortion, {\displaystyle \mathrm {SINAD} ={\frac {P_{\text{signal}}+P_{\text{noise}}+P_{\text{distortion}}}{P_{\text{noise}}+P_{\text{distortion}}}},} where P {\displaystyle P} is the average power of the signal, noise and distortion components. SINAD is usually expressed in dB and is quoted alongside the receiver RF sensitivity, to give a quantitative evaluation of the receiver sensitivity. Note that with th ...

Viterbi error rate

In digital transmission, the Viterbi error rate, also known as the Viterbi bit error rate, is a measurement of error in the transmission of digital Information after the original signal has been corrected for errors and aberrations, usually noise and/or distortion. The value of the VBER is directly linked to the quality of the Channel Bit Error Rate, a measurement of the strength & quality of the original signal.

                                     

ⓘ Error measures

  • synchronization errors The bit error rate BER is the number of bit errors per unit time. The bit error ratio also BER is the number of bit errors divided
  • Observational error or measurement error is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value. In statistics, an error is not a mistake
  • The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey s results. The larger the margin of error the less confidence
  • digital transmission, the Viterbi error rate, also known as the Viterbi bit error rate VBER is a measurement of error in the transmission of digital Information
  • standard error of the mean is a measure of the dispersion of sample means around the population mean. In regression analysis, the term standard error refers
  • science of ballistics, circular error probable CEP also circular error probability or circle of equal probability is a measure of a weapon system s precision
  • Repeated measures design is a research design that involves multiple measures of the same variable taken on the same or matched subjects either under different
  • The approximation error in some data is the discrepancy between an exact value and some approximation to it. An approximation error can occur because:
  • In statistics, sampling errors are incurred when the statistical characteristics of a population are estimated from a subset, or sample, of that population
  • Refractive error also known as refraction error is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the retina due to the shape of the eye. The most common
  • The mean absolute percentage error MAPE also known as mean absolute percentage deviation MAPD is a measure of prediction accuracy of a forecasting