ⓘ Literature by language ..

Writers by language Literary awards by language Bible translations by language Medieval texts by language Novels by language Plays by language Poems by language Poetry by nation or language Tirukkural translations by language Translations Exophony Afrikaans literature Anglo-Norman literature Armenian-language books Armenian-language novels Azerbaijani-language novels Bengali-language literature Breton-language literature Chinese-language literature Literature in Classical Chinese Cornish-language literature Dutch-language literature Esperanto literature Finnish-language literature French-language literature German-language literature Gujarati literature Hebrew-language literature Hittite literature Indian literature by language Irish-language literature Italian-language literature Kannada literature Kashmiri literature Komi literature Malayalam-language literature Manchu literature Manx-language literature Marathi-language literature Mayan literature Medieval literature by language Nahuatl literature Nenets literature Occitan literature Pali literature Pashto-language literature Persian literature Sanskrit literature Sami-language literature Saraiki literature Sardinian literature Scottish Gaelic literature Slovene-language literature Spanish-language literature Sumerian literature Sundanese literature Swedish-language literature Syriac literature Telugu-language literature Urdu-language literature Uzbek-language literature Welsh-language literature West Frisian literature Yiddish-language literature Yoruba-language literature Zulu literature

Vernacular literature

Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular - the speech of the "common people". In the European tradition, this effectively means literature not written in Latin. In this context, vernacular literature appeared during the Middle Ages at different periods in the various countries; the earliest European vernacular literatures are Irish literature, Welsh literature, Anglo-Saxon literature and Gothic literature. The Italian poet Dante Alighieri, in his De vulgari eloquentia, was possibly the first European writer to argue cogently for the promotion of literature in the verna ...

American Sign Language literature

American Sign Language literature is one of the most important shared cultural experiences in the American Deaf community. Literary genres initially developed in residential Deaf institutes, such as American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut, which is where American Sign Language developed as a language in the early 19th century. There are many genres of ASL Literature, such as Narratives of Personal Experience, Poetry, Cinematographic Stories, Folktales, Translated Works, Original Fiction and Stories with Handshape Constraints. Authors of ASL literature use their body as the te ...

Cornish literature

Cornish literature refers to written works in the Cornish language. The earliest surviving texts are in verse and date from the 14th century. There are virtually none from the 18th and 19th centuries but writing in revived forms of Cornish began in the early 20th century.


Exophony is the practice of writing in a language that is not ones mother tongue. While the phenomenon has been known for ages, the term is relatively new: it was introduced within the field of literary and cultural studies by Susan Arndt, Dirk Naguschewski and Robert Stockhammer in 2007. Some exophonic authors may be bilingual or multilingual from their childhood years, even polyglots, while others may write in an acquired language. In some cases the second language is acquired early in life, for example through immigration, and it is not always clear whether the writer should strictly be ...

Friulian literature

Friulian literature is the literature of the autonomous Italian region of Friuli, written in the local Friulian language. Readers be aware that there is an alternative spelling for the adjective derived from Friuli: friulan, as influenced by the Veneto dialect form furlan. The printed example of this is the Friulan Dictionary: English-Friulan, Friulan-English. edited by Gianni Nazzi & Deborah Saidero and published by Ent Friul tal Mond, 2000. Even if the first poems in Friulian date from the 14th century anonymous works written in Cividale such as Piruç myo doç inculurit and Soneto furlan, ...

Galician-language literature

Galician-language literature is the literature written in Galician. The earliest works in Galician language are from the early 13th-century trovadorismo tradition. In the Middle Ages, Galego-português was a language of culture, poetry and religion throughout not only Galicia and Portugal but also Castile. After the separation of Portuguese and Galician, Galician was considered provincial and was not widely used for literary or academic purposes. It was with the Rexurdimento "Rebirth", in the mid-19th century that Galician was used again in literature, and then in politics. Much literature ...


ⓘ Literature by language

  • Galician - language literature is the literature written in Galician. The earliest works in Galician language are from the early 13th - century trovadorismo
  • Nepali literature Nepali: न प ल स ह त य refers to the literature written in Nepali language inside Nepal as well as in any part of the world. The Nepali
  • American Sign Language literature or ASL literature is one of the most important shared cultural experiences in the American Deaf community. Literary
  • Western literature also known as European literature is the literature written in the context of Western culture in the languages of Europe, including
  • Chinese - language literature in Korea Korean hanmunhak is literature written the Chinese language in Korea, which represents an early phase of Korean
  • Welsh - language literature llenyddiaeth Gymraeg has been produced continuously since the emergence of Welsh from Brythonic as a distinct language in around
  • Manx literature is literature in the Manx language The earliest datable text in Manx preserved in 18th century manuscripts a poetic history of the
  • major Pakistani languages including Urdu, English, Punjabi, Seraiki, Balochi, Pushto and Sindhi. The nature of Pakistani literature soon after independence
  • Aragonese - language literature of Spain. It includes Aragonese poetry, prose and novels. For Aragonese literature in Spanish, see Spanish literature The Glosas