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Activation-synthesis hypothesis

The activation-synthesis hypothesis, proposed by Harvard University psychiatrists John Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley, is a neurobiological theory of dreams first published in the American Journal of Psychiatry in December 1977. The differences in neuronal activity of the brainstem during waking and REM sleep were observed, and the hypothesis proposes that dreams result from brain activation during REM sleep. Since then, the hypothesis has undergone an evolution as technology and experimental equipment has become more precise. Currently, a three-dimensional model called AIM Model, descri ...

Altered level of consciousness

An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal. Level of consciousness is a measurement of a persons arousability and responsiveness to stimuli from the environment. A mildly depressed level of consciousness or alertness may be classed as lethargy; someone in this state can be aroused with little difficulty. People who are obtunded have a more depressed level of consciousness and cannot be fully aroused. Those who are not able to be aroused from a sleep-like state are said to be stuporous. Coma is the inability to make any purposeful response. Scales such as ...

Animal consciousness

Animal consciousness, like human consciousness, is a state: a felt state -- a state that it feels like something to be in. It includes the quality or state of self-awareness within an animal: being aware of an external object or of something within itself. It is a key subject in the discussion of animal rights. In humans, consciousness has been defined as: sentience, awareness, subjectivity, qualia, the ability to experience or to feel, wakefulness, having a sense of self, and the executive control system of the mind. Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe there is ...

Anti-nesting principle

In the philosophy of consciousness, the anti-nesting principle states that one state of consciousness cannot exist within another. Proponents of the anti-nesting principle include Giulio Tononi and Hilary Putnam.

APZ questionnaire

The APZ questionnaire is one of the most widely used psychometric scales for assessing subjective experiences of altered states of consciousness. First published in 1998 by Adolf Dittrich, the APZ questionnaire comprises three dimensions: "Oceanic Boundlessness ", "Dread of Ego Dissolution and "Visionary Restructuralization ". According to Google Scholar, it has been cited at least 269 times.

Artificial consciousness

Artificial consciousness, also known as machine consciousness or synthetic consciousness, is a field related to artificial intelligence and cognitive robotics. The aim of the theory of artificial consciousness is to "Define that which would have to be synthesized were consciousness to be found in an engineered artifact". Neuroscience hypothesizes that consciousness is generated by the interoperation of various parts of the brain, called the neural correlates of consciousness or NCC, though there are challenges to that perspective. Proponents of AC believe it is possible to construct system ...