ⓘ Global intellectual history
Global intellectual history is the history of thought in the world across the span of human history, often understood from the invention of writing to the present. The discipline is part of the field of intellectual history, also known as history of ideas, and can also be termed global history of ideas.
In recent years, historians such as C. A. Bayly have been calling for a global intellectual history to be written. They stress that to understand the history of ideas across time and space, it is necessary to study from a cosmopolitan or global point of view the connections and the parallels in intellectual development across the world. Yet these separate histories and their convergence in the modern period have yet to be brought together into a single historical narrative. Nonetheless, some global histories, like Baylys own Birth of the Modern World or David Armitages The Declaration of Independence: A Global History offer contributions to the huge and necessarily collaborative project of writing the history of thought in a comparative and especially connective way. Other examples of transnational intellectual histories include Albert Houranis Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age.
In 2013, Samuel Moyn and Andrew Sartori published the anthology Global Intellectual History. In 2016, the Routledge journal Global Intellectual History ed. Richard Whatmore was established. In January 2019 the historian J. G. A. Pocock stated in that journal: "The beginnings of the global’ critique are well known and may as well be accepted as common ground. They reduce to the assertion that Cambridge’ scholarship in this field is Eurocentric’; that is, that it has dealt exclusively with the political thought’ generated in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, transmitted to medieval and modern Europe, and taken up in the Euro-colonized Americas and a world or globe’ subjected to European or western’ domination. This is obviously true, and calls for reformation."
It has been argued that the historians of ideas Arthur O. Lovejoy and Hajime Nakamura should be read as modern founders of the discipline global intellectual history. Other recent contributors are Siep Stuurman, Sanjay Subrahamnyam, and Martin Mulsow.
The origins of human intellectual history arguably began before the invention of writing, but historians are by definition only concerned with the eras in which writing was present. In the spirit of a historiographic project that is relevant to all human beings and that has yet to be completed, the sections that follow briefly review currents of thought in pre-modern and modern history of the world, and are organized by geographic area and within each section, chronologically.
1. Europe and the Americas
The modern intellectual history of Europe cannot be separated from various bodies of ancient thought, from the works of classical Greek and Latin authors to the writings of the fathers of the Christian Church. Such a broad survey of topics is not attempted here, however. A debatable but defensible starting point for modern European thought might instead be identified with the birth of scholasticism and humanism in the 13th and 14th centuries. Both of these intellectual currents were associated with classical revivals and with prominent founders, Aquinas and Petrarch respectively. But they were both significantly original intellectual experiences, as well as self-consciously modern, so that they make an appropriate starting point for this survey.
What follows below is a selective and far from complete listing of significant trends and individuals in the history of European thought. While movements such as the Enlightenment or Romanticism are relatively imprecise approximations, rarely taken too seriously by scholars, they are good starting points for approaching the enormous complexity of the history of Europes intellectual heritage. It is hoped that interested readers will pursue the listed topics in greater depth by consulting the respective articles and the suggestions for further reading.
The intellectual history of western Europe and the Americas includes:
2. South and East Asia
Pre-Modern East Asia
The intellectual history of China is connected to the birth of scholarship in ancient China, the creation of Confucianism with its extensive exegesis of the texts of Confucius, and the active part of scholars in governments. In Korea, the yangban scholar movement drove the development of Korean intellectual history from the late Goryeo to the golden age of intellectual achievement in the Joseon Dynasty.
In China, literati referred to the government officials who formed the ruling class in China for over two thousand years. These scholar-bureaucrats were a status group of educated laymen, not ordained priests. They were not a hereditary group as their position depended on their knowledge of writing and literature. After 200 B.C. the system of selection of candidates was influenced by Confucianism and established its ethic among the literati.
Confucianism 儒家, literally "scholarly tradition" is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. Confucius is seen as the founder of the teachings of Confucianism, although he claimed to follow the ways of people before him. Confucianism is a complex system of moral, social, political, philosophical, and religious thought which has had tremendous influence on the culture and history of East Asia. Some people in Europe have considered it to have been the "state religion" in East Asian countries because of governmental promotion of Confucianist values and needs.
Other ancient intellectual currents in East Asia include Buddhism and Daoism.
Modern East Asia
The modern intellectual history of China is considered to begin with the arrival of the Jesuits in the sixteenth century. The Jesuits brought with them new astronomical and cartographic knowledge, and were responsible for new developments in Chinese science. Science in modern China has been the subject of the work of the historian Benjamin Elman.
Pre-Modern South Asia
Indian thought is a broad topic that includes the ancient epics of South Asia, the development of what is now called Hinduism and Hindu philosophy and the rise of Buddhism, as well as many other topics relating to the political and artistic lives of pre-modern South Asia.
Ram Sharan Sharmas work Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in India (Motilal Banarsidass is the most authoritative account of ancient Indian political ideas and institutions. It deals with the intellectual standards in ancient India in terms of political institutions.
3. Africa and the Middle East
The culture of the ancient Near East and eventually of much of Africa as well was modified significantly by the arrival of Islam beginning in the seventh century CE. The history of Islam has been the work of many scholars, both Muslim and non-Muslim, and including such luminaries as Ignac Goldziher, Marshall Hodgson and in more recent times Patricia Crone. Islamic culture is not a simple and unified entity. The history of Islam, like that of other religions, is a history of different interpretations and approaches to Islam. There is no a-historical Islam outside the process of historical development.
Islamic thought includes a variety of different intellectual disciplines, including theology, the study of the Quran, the study of Hadith, history, grammar, rhetoric and philosophy. For more information see the Islamic Golden Age.
Classical Islamic scholars and authors include:
Persian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. Throughout Iranian history and due to remarkable political and social changes such as the Macedonian, Arab and Mongol invasions of Persia a wide spectrum of schools of thoughts showed a variety of views on philosophical questions extending from Old Iranian and mainly Zoroastrianism-related traditions to schools appearing in the late pre-Islamic era such as Manicheism and Mazdakism as well as various post-Islamic schools. Iranian philosophy after Arab invasion of Persia, is characterized by different interactions with the Old Iranian philosophy, the Greek philosophy and with the development of Islamic philosophy. The Illumination School and the Transcendent Philosophy are regarded as two of the main philosophical traditions of that era in Persia.
Modern Near and Middle East
Islam and modernity encompass the relation and compatibility between the phenomenon of modernity, its related concepts and ideas, and the religion of Islam. In order to understand the relation between Islam and modernity, one point should be made in the beginning. Similarly, modernity is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon rather than a unified and coherent phenomenon. It has historically had different schools of thoughts moving in many directions.
Intellectual movements in Iran involve the Iranian experience of modernism, through which Iranian modernity and its associated art, science, literature, poetry, and political structures have been evolving since the 19th century. Religious intellectualism in Iran develops gradually and subtly. It reached its apogee during the Persian Constitutional Revolution 1906–11. The process involved numerous philosophers, sociologists, political scientists and cultural theorists. However the associated art, cinema and poetry remained to be developed.
Recent concepts about African culture include the African Renaissance and Afrocentrism. The African Renaissance is a concept popularized by South African President Thabo Mbeki who called upon the African people and nations to solve the many problems troubling the African continent. It reached its height in the late 1990s but continues to be a key part of the post-apartheid intellectual agenda in South Africa. The concept however extends well beyond intellectual life to politics and economic development.
With the rise of Afrocentrism, the push away from Eurocentrism has led to the focus on the contributions of African people and their model of world civilization and history. Afrocentrism aims to shift the focus from a perceived European-centered history to an African-centered history. More broadly, Afrocentrism is concerned with distinguishing the influence of European and Oriental peoples from African achievements.
Notable modern African intellectual include: