ⓘ Retirement migration. Retirement is the withdrawal from ones position or occupation or from ones active working life. A person may also semi-retire by reducing ..


ⓘ Retirement migration

Retirement is the withdrawal from ones position or occupation or from ones active working life. A person may also semi-retire by reducing work hours.

An increasing number of individuals are choosing to put off this point of total retirement, by selecting to exist in the emerging state of pre-tirement. Some people who have retired from a position with a pre-nominal title, particularly military officers, are often listed with a post-nominal indicating retirement, e.g., "Admiral John Smith ret" or rtd or retd.

Many people choose to retire when they are eligible for private or public pension benefits, although some are forced to retire when bodily conditions no longer allow the person to work any longer by illness or accident or as a result of legislation concerning their position. In most countries, the idea of retirement is of recent origin, being introduced during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Previously, low life expectancy and the absence of pension arrangements meant that most workers continued to work until death. Germany was the first country to introduce retirement benefits in 1889.

Nowadays, most developed countries have systems to provide pensions on retirement in old age, funded by employers or the state. In many poorer countries there is no support for the old beyond that provided through the family. Today, retirement with a pension is considered a right of the worker in many societies; hard ideological, social, cultural and political battles have been fought over whether this is a right. In many western countries, this is a right embodied in national constitutions.


1. History

Retirement, or the practice of leaving ones job or ceasing to work after reaching a certain age, has been around since around the 18th century. Prior to the 18th century, humans had an average life expectancy between 26 and 40 years. In consequence, only a small percentage of the population reached an age where physical impairments began to be obstacles to working. Countries began to adopt government policies on retirement during the late 19th century and the 20th century, beginning in Germany under Otto von Bismarck.


2. In specific countries

A person may retire at whatever age they please. However, a countrys tax laws or state old-age pension rules usually mean that in a given country a certain age is thought of as the "standard" retirement age. As life expectancy increases and more and more people live to an advanced age, in many countries the age at which a pension is awarded has been increased in the 21st century, often progressively.

The "standard" retirement age varies from country to country but it is generally between 50 and 70 according to latest statistics, 2011. In some countries this age is different for men and women, although this has recently been challenged in some countries e.g., Austria, and in some countries the ages are being brought into line. The table below shows the variation in eligibility ages for public old-age benefits in the United States and many European countries, according to the OECD.

The retirement age in many countries is increasing, often starting in the 2010s and continuing until the late 2020s.

Notes: Parentheses indicate eligibility age for women when different. Sources: Cols. 1–2: OECD Pensions at a Glance 2005, Cols. 3–6: Tabulations from HRS, ELSA and SHARE. Square brackets indicate early retirement for some public employees.

1 In Denmark, early retirement is called efterlon and there are some requirements to be met. Early and normal retirement ages vary according to the date of birth of the person filing for retirement.

2 In France, the retirement age was 60, with full pension entitlement at 65; in 2010 this was extended to 62 and 67 respectively, increasing progressively over the following eight years.

3 In Latvia, the retirement age depends on the date of birth of the person filing for retirement.

4 In Spain it was ruled that the retirement age was to increase from 65 to 67 progressively from 2013 to 2027.

In the United States, while the normal retirement age for Social Security, or Old Age Survivors Insurance OASI was age 65 to receive unreduced benefits, it is gradually increasing to age 67 by 2027. Public servants are often not covered by Social Security but have their own pension programs. Police officers in the United States may typically retire at half pay after 20 years of service, or three-quarter pay after 30 years, allowing retirement from the early forties. Military members of the US Armed Forces may elect to retire after 20 years of active duty. Their retirement pay not a pension since they can be recalled to active duty at any time is calculated on number of years on active duty, final pay grade and the retirement system in place when they entered service. Members awarded the Medal of Honor qualify for a separate stipend. Retirement pay for military members in the reserve and US National Guard is based on a point system.


3. Data sets

Recent advances in data collection have vastly improved our ability to understand important relationships between retirement and factors such as health, wealth, employment characteristics and family dynamics, among others. The most prominent study for examining retirement behavior in the United States is the ongoing Health and Retirement Study HRS, first fielded in 1992. The HRS is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adults in the U.S. ages 51+, conducted every two years, and contains a wealth of information on such topics as labor force participation, health, financial variables, family characteristics and a host of other topics.

2002 and 2004 saw the introductions of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing ELSA and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe SHARE, which includes respondents from 14 continental European countries plus Israel. These surveys were closely modeled after the HRS in sample frame, design and content. A number of other countries also now field HRS-like surveys, and others are currently fielding pilot studies. These data sets have expanded the ability of researchers to examine questions about retirement behavior by adding a cross-national perspective.

Notes: MHAS discontinued in 2003; ELSA numbers exclude institutionalized nursing homes. Source: Borsch-Supan et al., eds. November 2008. Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe 2004–2007: Starting the Longitudinal Dimension.


4. Factors affecting decisions

Many factors affect peoples retirement decisions. Retirement funding education is a big factor that affects the success of an individual’s retirement experience. Social Security clearly plays an important role because most individuals solely rely on Social Security as their only retirement option, when Social Security’s both trust funds are expected to be depleted by 2034. Knowledge affects an individual’s retirement decisions by simply finding more reliable retirement options such as, Individual Retirement Accounts or Employer-Sponsored Plans. In countries around the world, people are much more likely to retire at the early and normal retirement ages of the public pension system e.g., ages 62 and 65 in the U.S. This pattern cannot be explained by different financial incentives to retire at these ages since typically retirement benefits at these ages are approximately actuarially fair; that is, the present value of lifetime pension benefits pension wealth conditional on retiring at age a is approximately the same as pension wealth conditional on retiring one year later at age a +1. Nevertheless, a large literature has found that individuals respond significantly to financial incentives relating to retirement e.g., to discontinuities stemming from the Social Security earnings test or the tax system.

Greater wealth tends to lead to earlier retirement, since wealthier individuals can essentially "purchase" additional leisure. Generally the effect of wealth on retirement is difficult to estimate empirically since observing greater wealth at older ages may be the result of increased saving over the working life in anticipation of earlier retirement. However, a number of economists have found creative ways to estimate wealth effects on retirement and typically find that they are small. For example, one paper exploits the receipt of an inheritance to measure the effect of wealth shocks on retirement using data from the HRS. The authors find that receiving an inheritance increases the probability of retiring earlier than expected by 4.4 percentage points, or 12 percent relative to the baseline retirement rate, over an eight-year period.

A great deal of attention has surrounded how the Financial crisis of 2007–2008 and subsequent Great Recession are affecting retirement decisions, with the conventional wisdom saying that fewer people will retire since their savings have been depleted; however recent research suggests that the opposite may happen. Using data from the HRS, researchers examined trends in defined benefit DB vs. defined contribution DC pension plans and found that those nearing retirement had only limited exposure to the recent stock market decline and thus are not likely to substantially delay their retirement. At the same time, using data from the Current Population Survey CPS, another study estimates that mass layoffs are likely to lead to an increase in retirement almost 50% larger than the decrease brought about by the stock market crash, so that on net retirements are likely to increase in response to the crisis.

More information tells of how many who retire will continue to work, but not in the career they have had for the majority of their life. Job openings will increase in the next 5 years due to retirements of the baby boomer generation. The Over 50 population is actually the fastest growing labor groups in the US.

A great deal of research has examined the effects of health status and health shocks on retirement. It is widely found that individuals in poor health generally retire earlier than those in better health. This does not necessarily imply that poor health status leads people to retire earlier, since in surveys retirees may be more likely to exaggerate their poor health status to justify their earlier decision to retire. This justification bias, however, is likely to be small. In general, declining health over time, as well as the onset of new health conditions, have been found to be positively related to earlier retirement. Health conditions that can cause someone to retire include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, joint diseases, and hyperlipidemia.

Most people are married when they reach retirement age; thus, spouses employment status may affect ones decision to retire. On average, husbands are three years older than their wives in the U.S., and spouses often coordinate their retirement decisions. Thus, men are more likely to retire if their wives are also retired than if they are still in the labor force, and vice versa.


4.1. Factors affecting decisions EU member-states

Researchers analyzed factors affecting retirement decisions in EU Member States:

  • Blondal and Scarpetta 1999 find significant effect of socio-demographic factors on the retirement decision. Men tend to retire later than women as women try to benefit from special early retirement schemes in Germany and the Netherlands. Another reason is that they get access to pensions earlier than men as standard age of entitlement to pension is lower for women compared with men in Italy and the United Kingdom. The other interesting finding is that retirement depends on household size: heads of large households prefer not to retire. They think that this can be because of the significance of wages in large households compared with smaller ones and insufficiency of pension benefits. Another finding is that health status is significant factor in all early retirements; poor health conditions are especially significant if respondents join to disability benefit scheme. This result is true for both indicators used to express health status self assessment and objective indicators. This research is similar to Antolin and Scarpetta 1998 and shows similar results extending sample and implications from Germany to OECD.
  • Antolin and Scarpetta 1998 using German Socio-Economic Panel and hazard model find that Socio-demographic factors such as health and gender have a strong impact on the retirement decision: women tend to retire earlier than men, and poor health makes people go into retirement, particularly in the case of disability retirement. The relationship between health status and retirement is significant for both self-assessed and objective indicators of health status. This is similar finding to the previous research of Blau and Riphahn 1997; using individual data from the German Socio-Economic Panel as well, but controlling for different variables they found that if individual has chronic health condition, then he tends to retire. Antolin and Scarpetta 1998 use better measure for health status than Blau and Riphahn 1997, because self-assessed and objective indicators of health status are better measures than chronic health condition.
  • Alba-Ramirez 1997 uses micro data from the Active Population Survey of Spain and logit model for analyzing determinants of retirement decision and finds that having more members in the household, and as well as children, has a negative effect on the probability of retirement among older males. This is an intuitive result as males in bigger household with children have to earn more and pension benefits will be less than needed for household.
  • Murray et al 2016, 2019 have shown that in the United Kingdom local labour markets of where workers live effects later life work exit. In the first study, older workers aged 50 to 75 were more likely to exit the workforce over 10 years 2011-2011 if they had lived in a more deprived local authority in 2001. For respondents that identified as sick/disabled in 2011, effects of local area unemployment in 2001 were stronger for respondents who had better self-rated health in 2001. The second study used the 1946 Birth Cohort to show that it’s not just area unemployment near retirement age that matters for the ages workers retire: higher area unemployment at age 26 was associated with poorer health and lower likelihood of employment at aged 53; and these two individual pathways were identified as the key mediators between area unemployment and retirement age.
  • Rashad Mehbaliyev 2011 analyzed how different factors related with health, demographics, behavior, financial status, and macroeconomics can affect retirement status in European Union countries for data collected from the SHARE Wave 2 dataset Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and UN sources. He found that males are less likely to be retired compared with females in New Member States, which is the opposite result than he found for Old Member States. He explained that: "The reasons for these results can be the facts that significant gender wage gap exists in New Member States, household sizes are bigger in these countries than in Old Member States and males play important role in household income which make them retire less than females."

4.2. Factors affecting decisions United States

  • Benitez-Silva 2000 analyzes determinants of labor force status and retirement process among elderly US citizens and possibility of decision returning to work using logit and probit models. He uses Health and Retirement Survey HRS for this purpose and finds that physical and mental health has significant effect on becoming employed. Male respondents are more likely to change their status from being not-employed to employed, but being insured has a negative effect on switching job status from" not-employed” to" employed” for people aged 60–62 and insignificant effect for 55-59 and aged over 63.
  • Quinn et al. 1998 find significant correlation between health status and retirement status. They transform answers for question about health status from five levels" excellent”," very good”," good”," fair” and" poor” into three levels and report results for three groups of people. 85% of respondents who answered" excellent” or" very good” to the question about their health in 1992 were still working two years after this interview, compared to 82% of those who answered" good”, and 70% of those answered" fair” or" poor”. This fact is also true for year 1996: 73% of people from the first group were still on the job market, while this is 66% and 55% for other groups of people. However, Dhaval, Rashad and Spasojevic 2006 using data from six waves of Health and Retirement Survey HRS show that relationship between retirement and health status can imply the opposite effect in reality: physical and mental health decline after retirement.


5. Saving for

Overall, income after retirement can come from state pensions, occupational pensions, private savings and investments private pension funds, owned housing, donations e.g., by children, and social benefits. In some countries an additional lump sum is granted, according to the years of work and the average pay; this is usually provided by the employer. On a personal level, the rising cost of living during retirement is a serious concern to many older adults. Health care costs play an important role.

Provision of state pensions is a significant drain on a governments budget. As life expectancy increases and the health of older people improves with medical advances, the age of entitlement to a pension has been increasing progressively since about 2010.

Older people have poorer health, and the cost of health care in retirement is large. Most countries provide universal health insurance coverage for seniors, although in the United States many people retire before they become eligible for Medicare health cover at age 65.


5.1. Saving for Calculators

A useful and straightforward calculation can be done if we assume that interest, after expenses, taxes, and inflation is zero. Assume that in real after-inflation terms, your salary never changes during your w years of working life. During your p years of pension, you have a living standard that costs a replacement ratio R times as much as your living standard in your working life. Your working life living standard is your salary less the proportion of salary Z that you need to save. Calculations are per unit salary e.g., assume salary = 1.

Then after w years work, retirement age accumulated savings = wZ. To pay for pension for p years, necessary savings at retirement = Rp1-Z

Equate these: wZ = Rp 1-Z and solve to give Z = Rp / w + Rp. For example, if w = 35, p = 30 and R = 0.65 we find that we need to save a proportion Z = 35.78% of our salary.

Retirement calculators generally accumulate a proportion of salary up to retirement age. This shows a straightforward case, which nonetheless could be practically useful for optimistic people hoping to work for only as long as they are likely to be retired. References relevant to the zero real interest assumption are listed here

For more complicated situations, there are several online retirement calculators on the Internet. Many retirement calculators project how much an investor needs to save, and for how long, to provide a certain level of retirement expenditures. Some retirement calculators, appropriate for safe investments, assume a constant, unvarying rate of return. Monte Carlo retirement calculators take volatility into account and project the probability that a particular plan of retirement savings, investments, and expenditures will outlast the retiree. Retirement calculators vary in the extent to which they take taxes, social security, pensions, and other sources of retirement income and expenditures into account.

The assumptions keyed into a retirement calculator are critical. One of the most important assumptions is the assumed rate of real after inflation investment return. A conservative return estimate could be based on the real yield of Inflation-indexed bonds offered by some governments, including the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The TIP$TER retirement calculator projects the retirement expenditures that a portfolio of inflation-linked bonds, coupled with other income sources like Social Security, would be able to sustain. Current real yields on United States Treasury Inflation Protected Securities TIPS are available at the US Treasury site. Current real yields on Canadian Real Return Bonds are available at the Bank of Canadas site. As of December 2011, US Treasury inflation-linked bonds TIPS were yielding about 0.8% real per annum for the 30-year maturity and a noteworthy slightly negative real return for the 7-year maturity.

Many individuals use "retirement calculators" on the Internet to determine the proportion of their pay they should be saving in a tax advantaged-plan. After expenses and any taxes, a reasonable though arguably pessimistic long-term assumption for a safe real rate of return is zero. So in real terms, interest does not help the savings grow. Each year of work must pay its share of a year of retirement. For someone planning to work for 40 years and be retired for 20 years, each year of work pays for itself and for half a year of retirement. Hence, 33.33% of pay must be saved, and 66.67% can be spent when earned. After 40 years of saving 33.33% of pay, we have accumulated assets of 13.33 years of pay, as in the graph. In the graph to the right, the lines are straight, which is appropriate given the assumption of a zero real investment return.

The graph above can be compared with those generated by many retirement calculators. However, most retirement calculators use nominal not "real" dollars and therefore require a projection of both the expected inflation rate and the expected nominal rate of return. One way to work around this limitation is to, for example, enter "0% return, 0% inflation" inputs into the calculator. The Bloomberg retirement calculator gives the flexibility to specify, for example, zero inflation and zero investment return and to reproduce the graph above. The MSN retirement calculator in 2011 has as the defaults a realistic 3% per annum inflation rate and optimistic 8% return assumptions; consistency with the December 2011 US nominal bond and inflation-protected bond market rates requires a change to about 3% inflation and 4% investment return before and after retirement.

Ignoring tax, someone wishing to work for a year and then relax for a year on the same living standard needs to save 50% of pay. Similarly, someone wishing to work from age 25 to 55 and be retired for 30 years till 85 needs to save 50% of pay if government and employment pensions are not a factor and if it is considered appropriate to assume a zero real investment return. The problem that the lifespan is not known in advance can be reduced in some countries by the purchase at retirement of an inflation-indexed life annuity.


5.2. Saving for Size of lump sum required

To pay for your pension, assumed for simplicity to be received at the end of each year, and taking discounted values in the manner of a net present value calculation, you need a lump sum available at retirement of:

1 – z prop R repl S {1+ i real −1 +1+ i real −2 +… ….+ 1+ i real −p } = 1-z prop R repl S {1 – 1+i real −p)/i real }

Above we have used the standard mathematical formula for the sum of a geometric series. Or if i real =0 then the series in braces sums to p since it then has p equal terms. As an example, assume that S=60.000 per year and that it is desired to replace R repl =0.80, or 80%, of pre-retirement living standard for p=30 years. Assume for current purposes that a proportion z prop =0.25 25% of pay was being saved. Using i real =0.02, or 2% per year real return on investments, the necessary lump sum is given by the formula as 1-0.25*0.80*60.000*annuity-series-sum30=36.000*22.396=806.272 in the nations currency in 2008–2010 terms. To allow for inflation in a straightforward way, it is best to talk of the 806.272 as being 13.43 years of retirement age salary. It may be appropriate to regard this as being the necessary lump sum to fund 36.000 of annual supplements to any employer or government pensions that are available. It is common to not include any house value in the calculation of this necessary lump sum, so for a homeowner the lump sum pays primarily for non-housing living costs.


5.3. Saving for Size of lump sum saved

Will you have saved enough at retirement? Use our necessary but unrealistic assumption of a constant after-pay-rises rate of interest. At retirement you have accumulated

z prop S {1+ i rel to pay w-1 +1+ i rel to pay w-2 +… ….+ 1+ i rel to pay+ 1 }

= z prop S 1+i rel to pay w - 1)/i rel to pay


5.4. Saving for Equate and derive necessary saving proportion

To make the accumulation match with the lump sum needed to pay your pension:

z prop S 1+i rel to pay) w - 1)/i rel to pay = 1-z prop R repl S 1 – 1+i real) −p)/i real

Bring z prop to the left hand side to give our answer, under this rough and unguaranteed method, for the proportion of pay that we should be saving:

z prop = R repl 1 – 1+i real) −p)/i real / Ret-03

Note that the special case i rel to pay =0 = i real means that we instead sum the geometric series by noting that we have p or w identical terms and hence z prop = p/w+p. This corresponds to our graph above with the straight line real-terms accumulation.


5.5. Saving for Sample results

The result for the necessary z prop given by Ret-03 depends critically on the assumptions that you make. As an example, you might assume that price inflation will be 3.5% per year forever and that your pay will increase only at that same rate of 3.5%. If you assume a 4.5% per year nominal rate of interest, then using 1.045/1.035 in real terms your pre-retirement and post-retirement net interest rates will remain the same, i rel to pay = 0.966 percent per year and i real = 0.966 percent per year. These assumptions may be reasonable in view of the market returns available on inflation-indexed bonds, after expenses and any tax. Equation Ret-03 is readily coded in Excel and with these assumptions gives the required savings rates in the accompanying picture.


5.6. Saving for Monte Carlo: better allowance for randomness

Finally, a newer method for determining the adequacy of a retirement plan is Monte Carlo simulation. This method has been gaining popularity and is now employed by many financial planners. Monte Carlo retirement calculators allow users to enter savings, income and expense information and run simulations of retirement scenarios. The simulation results show the probability that the retirement plan will be successful.


6. Early retirement

Retirement is generally considered to be "early" if it occurs before the age or tenure needed for eligibility for support and funds from government or employer-provided sources. Early retirees typically rely on their own savings and investments to be self-supporting, either indefinitely or until they begin receiving external support. Early retirement can also be used as a euphemistic term for being terminated from employment before typical retirement age.


6.1. Early retirement Savings needed

While conventional wisdom has it that one can retire and take 7% or more out of a portfolio year after year, this strategy would not have worked very often in the past.

The chart at the right shows the year-to-year portfolio balances after taking $35.000 and adjusting for inflation from a $750.000 portfolio every year for 30 years, starting in 1973 red line, 1974 blue line, or 1975 green line. While the overall market conditions and inflation affected all three about the same since all three experienced exactly the same conditions between 1975 and 2003, the chance of making the funds last for 30 years depended heavily on what happened to the stock market in the first few years.

Those contemplating early retirement will want to know if they have enough to survive possible bear markets such as the one that would cause the hypothetical 1973 retirees fund to be exhausted after only 20 years.

The history of the US stock market shows that one would need to live on about 4% of the initial portfolio per year to ensure that the portfolio is not depleted before the end of the retirement; this rule of thumb is a summary of one conclusion of the Trinity study, though the report is more nuanced and the conclusions and very approach have been heavily criticized see Trinity study for details. This allows for increasing the withdrawals with inflation to maintain a consistent spending ability throughout the retirement, and to continue making withdrawals even in dramatic and prolonged bear markets. The 4% figure does not assume any pension or change in spending levels throughout the retirement.

When retiring prior to age ​ 59 1 ⁄ 2, there is a 10% IRS penalty on withdrawals from a retirement plan such as a 401k plan or a Traditional IRA. Exceptions apply under certain circumstances. At age 59 and six months, the penalty-free status is achieved and the 10% IRS penalty no longer applies.

To avoid the 10% penalty prior to age ​ 59 1 ⁄ 2, a person should consult a lawyer about the use of IRS rule 72 T. This rule must be applied for with the IRS. It allows the distribution of an IRA account prior to age ​ 59 1 ⁄ 2 in equal amounts of a period of either 5 years or until the age of ​ 59 1 ⁄ 2, whichever is the longest time period, without a 10% penalty. Taxes still must be paid on the distributions.


6.2. Early retirement Calculations using actual numbers

Although the 4% initial portfolio withdrawal rate described above can be used as a rough gauge, it is often desirable to use a retirement planning tool that accepts detailed input and can render a result that has more precision. Some of these tools model only the retirement phase of the plan while others can model both the savings or accumulation phase as well as the retirement phase of the plan. For example, an analysis by Forbes reckoned that in 90% of historical markets, a 4% rate would have lasted for at least 30 years, while in 50% of the historical markets, a 4% rate would have been sustained for more than 40 years.

The effects of making inflation-adjusted withdrawals from a given starting portfolio can be modeled with a downloadable spreadsheet that uses historical stock market data to estimate likely portfolio returns. Another approach is to employ a retirement calculator that also uses historical stock market modeling, but adds provisions for incorporating pensions, other retirement income, and changes in spending that may occur during the course of the retirement.


7. Life after

Retirement might coincide with important life changes; a retired worker might move to a new location, for example a retirement community, thereby having less frequent contact with their previous social context and adopting a new lifestyle. Often retirees volunteer for charities and other community organizations. Tourism is a common marker of retirement and for some becomes a way of life, such as for so-called grey nomads. Some retired people even choose to go and live in warmer climates in what is known as retirement migration.

It has been found that Americans have six lifestyle choices as they age: continuing to work full-time, continuing to work part-time, retiring from work and becoming engaged in a variety of leisure activities, retiring from work and becoming involved in a variety of recreational and leisure activities, retiring from work and later returning to work part-time, and retiring from work and later returning to work full-time. An important note to make from these lifestyle definitions are that four of the six involve working. America is facing an important demographic change in that the Baby Boomer generation is now reaching retirement age. This poses two challenges: whether there will be a sufficient number of skilled workers in the work force, and whether the current pension programs will be sufficient to support the growing number of retired people. The reasons that some people choose to never retire, or to return to work after retiring include not only the difficulty of planning for retirement but also wages and fringe benefits, expenditure of physical and mental energy, production of goods and services, social interaction, and social status may interact to influence an individual’s work force participation decision.

Often retirees are called upon to care for grandchildren and occasionally aged parents. For many it gives them more time to devote to a hobby or sport such as golf or sailing. On the other hand, many retirees feel restless and suffer from depression as a result of their new situation. Although it is not scientifically possible to directly show that retirement either causes or contributes to depression, the newly retired are one of the most vulnerable societal groups when it comes to depression most likely due to confluence of increasing age and deteriorating health status. Retirement coincides with deterioration of ones health that correlates with increasing age and this likely plays a major role in increased rates of depression in retirees. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have shown that healthy elderly and retired people are as happy or happier and have an equal quality of life as they age as compared to younger employed adults, therefore retirement in and of itself is not likely to contribute to development of depression.

Many people in the later years of their lives, due to failing health, require assistance, sometimes in extremely expensive treatments – in some countries – being provided in a nursing home. Those who need care, but are not in need of constant assistance, may choose to live in a retirement home.

  • increasing the retirement age in order to keep the elderly involved in the work force as much as possible. Demography Human migration List of countries
  • The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe SHARE is a multidisciplinary and cross - national panel database of micro data on health, socio - economic
  • The history of Japanese migration in Malaysia goes back to the late 19th century, when the country was part of the British Empire as British Malaya. Even
  • Humanitarian Organization for Migration Economics HOME is a Singaporean non - governmental organization that provides services to, and advocates on behalf
  • British migration to Portugal has resulted in Portugal being home to one of the largest British - born populations outside of the United Kingdom. Migration from
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  • Museum, in Chicago, where he prepared for publication a study of plant migration left by Berthold Laufer after his death and developed a monograph on slavery
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  • western Sydney, New South Wales, for the Australian Labor Party until his retirement before the 2010 election. Born in Sydney, Price was educated at the New
  • archaeology. In 1994, he stated his ornithological interests as bird ringing, migration longevity and population dynamics He married Verity in 1965 they had