ⓘ Accident. An accident is an unplanned event that sometimes has inconvenient or undesirable consequences, other times being inconsequential. The term implies tha ..

                                     

ⓘ Accident

An accident is an unplanned event that sometimes has inconvenient or undesirable consequences, other times being inconsequential. The term implies that such an event may not be preventable since its antecedent circumstances go unrecognized and unaddressed. Most scientists who study unintentional injury avoid using the term "accident" and focus on factors that increase risk of severe injury and that reduce injury incidence and severity.

                                     

1.1. Types Accidents By activity

  • In contrast, leisure-related accidents are mainly sports injuries.
  • Accidents during the execution of work or arising out of it are called work accidents. According to the International Labour Organization ILO, more than 337 million accidents happen on the job each year, resulting, together with occupational diseases, in more than 2.3 million deaths annually.
                                     

1.2. Types Accidents By vehicle

  • Trams
  • Train wrecks
  • Aviation
  • Traffic collisions
  • Sailing ships
  • Bicycles
                                     

2. Common causes

Poisons, vehicle collisions and falls are the most common causes of fatal injuries. According to a 2005 survey of injuries sustained at home, which used data from the National Vital Statistics System of the United States National Center for Health Statistics, falls, poisoning, and fire/burn injuries are the most common causes of death.

The United States also collects statistically valid injury data sampled from 100 hospitals through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System administered by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. This program was revised in 2000 to include all injuries rather than just injuries involving products. Data on emergency department visits is also collected through the National Health Interview Survey. In The U.S. the Bureau of Labor Statistics has available on their website extensive statistics on workplace accidents.

                                     

3. Accident models

Many models to characterize and analyze accidents have been proposed, which can by classified by type. Notable types and models include:

  • Loss Causation Model
  • Sequential models
  • Domino Theory
  • Time sequence models
  • Accident Evolution and Barrier Function
  • Generalized Time Sequence Model
  • Energy Damage Model
  • Complex linear models
  • Onward Mappings Model based on Resident Pathogens Metaphor
  • Epidemiological models
  • Gordon 1949
  • Benner 1975
  • Process model
  • Human reliability
  • Rasmussen
  • Systemic models
  • Reason Model of System Safety embedding the Swiss cheese model
  • Healthcare error proliferation model
  • Woods, 1994
  • Non-linear models
  • Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Process STAMP
  • System accident
  • Assertions that all existing models are insufficient
  • Functional Resonance Accident Model FRAM

Ishikawa diagrams are sometimes used to illustrate root-cause analysis and five whys discussions.