ⓘ Airborne disease
An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through the air by both small, dry particles, and as larger liquid droplets. Such diseases include many of considerable importance both in human and veterinary medicine. The relevant pathogens may be viruses, bacteria, or fungi, and they may be spread through breathing, talking, coughing, sneezing, raising of dust, spraying of liquids, toilet flushing or any activities which generates aerosol particles or droplets. Human airborne diseases do not include conditions caused by air pollution such as Volatile Organic Compounds, gases and any airborne particles.
Airborne diseases include any that are caused via transmission through the air. Many airborne diseases are of great medical importance. The pathogens transmitted may be any kind of microbe, and they may be spread in aerosols, dust or liquids. The aerosols might be generated from sources of infection such as the bodily secretions of an infected animal or person, or biological wastes such as accumulate in lofts, caves, garbage and the like. Such infected aerosols may stay suspended in air currents long enough to travel for considerable distances; sneezes, for example, can easily project infectious droplets the full length of a bus.
Airborne pathogens or allergens often cause inflammation in the nose, throat, sinuses and the lungs. This is caused by the inhalation of these pathogens that affect a persons respiratory system or even the rest of the body. Sinus congestion, coughing and sore throats are examples of inflammation of the upper respiratory air way due to these airborne agents. Air pollution plays a significant role in airborne diseases which is linked to asthma. Pollutants are said to influence lung function by increasing air way inflammation.
Many common infections can spread by airborne transmission at least in some cases, including: Anthrax inhalational, Chickenpox, Influenza, Common Cold, Measles, Smallpox, Cryptococcosis, Pertussis and Tuberculosis.
Airborne diseases can also affect non-humans. For example, Newcastle disease is an avian disease that affects many types of domestic poultry worldwide which is transmitted via airborne contamination. Often, airborne pathogens or allergens cause inflammation in the nose, throat, sinuses, and the upper airway lungs. Upper airway inflammation causes coughing congestion, and sore throat. This is caused by the inhalation of these pathogens that affect a persons respiratory system or even the rest of the body. Sinus congestion, coughing and sore throats are examples of inflammation of the upper respiratory air way due to these airborne agents.
Two main routes of infections are possible for airborne disease categorized by the size of the particle.
- Airborne Infections: "the infection usually occurs by the respiratory route, with the agent present in aerosols infectious particles 5 µm in diameter." Usually wet particles and considered to be direct exposure to someones mucus in some articles. e.g., Common cold.
Airborne transmission of disease depends on several physical variables endemic to the infectious particle. Environmental factors influence the efficacy of airborne disease transmission; the most evident environmental conditions are temperature and relative humidity. The sum of all the factors that influence temperature and humidity, either meteorological outdoor or human indoor, as well as other circumstances influencing the spread of the droplets containing the infectious particles, as winds, or human behavior, sum up the factors influencing the transmission of airborne diseases.
- Climate and living area. Rainfall number of rainy days being more important than total precipitation, mean of sunshine daily hours, latitude, altitude are characteristic agents to take in account when assessing the possibility of spread of any airborne infection. Furthermore, some infrequent or exceptional extreme events also influence the dissemination of airborne diseases, as tropical storms, hurricanes, typhoons, or monsoons. Climate conditions determine temperature, winds and relative humidity in any territory, either all year around or at isolated moments days or weeks. Those are the main factors affecting the spread, duration and infectiousness of droplets containing infectious particles. For instance, influenza virus, is spread easily in northern countries north hemisphere, because of climate conditions which favour the infectiousness of the virus but on the other hand, in those countries, lots of bacterial infections cannot spread outdoor most of the year, keeping in a latent stage.
- Socioeconomics and living conditions. They have a minor role in airborne diseases transmission, but they also have to be taken in consideration. Dwelling is an important aspect. In cities the spread of diseases are faster than in rural areas and outskirts. Normally, cities enclose quarters of buildings, in which the transmission of the viral and bacterial diseases among the neighborhoods are uncomplicated. However, suburban areas are generally more favorable for higher airborne fungal spores
Some ways to prevent airborne diseases include washing hands, using appropriate hand disinfection, getting regular immunizations against diseases believed to be locally present, wearing a respirator and limiting time spent in the presence of any patient likely to be a source of infection. Exposure to a patient or animal with an airborne disease does not guarantee receiving the disease. Because of the changes in host immunity and how much the host was exposed to the particles in the air makes a difference to how the disease affects the body.
Antibiotics are not prescribed for patients to control viral infections. They may however be prescribed to a flu patient for instance, to control or prevent bacterial secondary infections. They also may be used in dealing with air-borne bacterial primary infections, such as pneumonic plague.
Additionally the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC has told consumers about vaccination and following careful hygiene and sanitation protocols for airborne disease prevention. Consumers also have access to preventive measures like UV Air purification devices that FDA and EPA-certified laboratory test data has verified as effective in inactivating a broad array of airborne infectious diseases. Many public health specialists recommend social distancing to reduce the transmission of airborne infections.
- Airborne or Airborn may refer to: Airborne 1962 film a 1962 American film directed by James Landis Airborne 1993 film a comedy drama film Airborne
- fictional diseases, diseases found only in works of fiction. Airborne disease a disease that spreads through the air. Contagious disease a subset of infectious
- epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged. Airborne An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens and transmitted through the
- with the person suffering the disease or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes. Non - contagious
- MMWR Airborne disease Fecal - oral route Food Microbiology Free - living amebic infection Public health Sanitation Vector epidemiology List of diseases caused
- Airborne is the eighteenth episode of the third season of House, the sixty - fourth episode overall. House is returning from a pandemics symposium in Singapore
- incidence of vector - borne diseases These factors include animals hosting the disease vectors, and people. Airborne disease Asymptomatic carrier Fomite
- The Airborne Toxic Event is an American rock band from Los Angeles, California, formed in 2006. It consists of Mikel Jollett vocals, guitar, keyboards
- that deals with the causes of infectious disease recognizes five major modes of disease transmission: airborne waterborne, bloodborne, by direct contact
- biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or
- Cardiovascular disease CVD is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases CAD such as angina