ⓘ Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, with potentially serious effects on ..

                                     

ⓘ Antibiotic misuse

Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, with potentially serious effects on health. It is a contributing factor to the development of antibiotic resistance, including the creation of multidrug-resistant bacteria, informally called "super bugs": relatively harmless bacteria can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics and cause life-threatening infections.

                                     

1. History of antibiotic regulation

Antibiotics have been around since 1928 when penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming. In the 1980s, antibiotics that were determined medically important for treatment of animals could be approved under veterinary oversight. In 1996, the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System NARMS was established. Starting in 2010, publications regarding antimicrobial drugs in food became an annual report. Starting in 2012, there was publicly solicited input on how data is to be collected and reported for matters relating to the use of antimicrobials for food-producing animals. Resulting from this, the FDA revised its sampling structure within NARMS with the goal of obtaining more representative livestock data for the key organisms under surveillance." NARMS partners at CDC and USDA have published over 150 peer-reviewed research articles examining the nature and magnitude of antimicrobial resistance hazards associated with antibiotic use in food-producing animals.” In 2014, the FDA began working with the United States Department of Agriculture USDA and the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention CDC to explore additional mechanisms to obtain data that is representative of antibiotic use in food-producing animals. In 2015, the FDA issued the Veterinary Feed Directive VFD final rule, under which veterinarians must authorize the use of antimicrobials within feed for the animals they serve.

                                     

2. Instances of antibiotic misuse

Antibiotics treats bacterial infections rather than viral infections.

Common situations in which antibiotics are overused include the following:

  • When children with ear tubes get ear infections, they should have antibiotic eardrops put into their ears to go to the infection rather than having oral antibiotics which are more likely to have unwanted side effects.
  • Swimmers ear should be treated with antibiotic eardrops, not oral antibiotics.
  • Older persons often have bacteria in their urine which is detected in routine urine tests, but unless the person has the symptoms of a urinary tract infection, antibiotics should not be used in response.
  • Sinusitis should not be treated with antibiotics because it is usually caused by a virus, and even when it is caused by a bacteria, antibiotics are not indicated except in atypical circumstances as it usually resolves without treatment.
  • The use of topical antibiotics to treat surgical wounds does not reduce infection rates in comparison with non-antibiotic ointment or no ointment at all.
  • Viral conjunctivitis should not be treated with antibiotics. Antibiotics should only be used with confirmation that a patient has bacterial conjunctivitis.
  • Apparent viral respiratory illness in children should not be treated with antibiotics. If there is a diagnosis of bacterial infection, then antibiotics may be used.
  • Eczema should not be treated with oral antibiotics. Dry skin can be treated with lotions or other symptom treatments.
                                     

3. Social and economic impact

Antibiotics can cause severe reactions and add significantly to the cost of care. In the United States, antibiotics and anti-infectives are the leading cause of adverse effect from drugs. In a study of 32 States in 2011, antibiotics and anti-infectives accounted for nearly 24 percent of ADEs that were present on admission, and 28 percent of those that occurred during a hospital stay.

If antimicrobial resistance continues to increase from current levels, it is estimated that by 2050 ten million people would die every year due to lack of available treatment and the world’s GDP would be 2 - 3.5% lower in 2050. If worldwide action is not taken to combat antibiotic misuse and the development of antimicrobial resistance, from 2014 - 2050 it is estimated that 300 million people could die prematurely due to drug resistance and $60 – 100 trillion of economic output would be lost. If the current worldwide development of antimicrobial resistance is delayed by just 10 years, $65 trillion of the world’s GDP output can be saved from 2014-2050.

Prescribing by an infectious disease specialist compared with prescribing by a non-infectious disease specialist decreases antibiotic consumption and reduces costs.



                                     

4. Antibiotic resistance

Though antibiotics are required to treat severe bacterial infections, misuse has contributed to a rise in bacterial resistance. The overuse of fluoroquinolone and other antibiotics fuels antibiotic resistance in bacteria, which can inhibit the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections. Their excessive use in children with otitis media has given rise to a breed of bacteria resistant to antibiotics entirely. Additionally, the use of antimicrobial substances in building materials and personal care products has contributed to a higher percentage of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the indoor environment, where humans spend a large majority of their lives.

Widespread use of fluoroquinolones as a first-line antibiotic has led to decreased antibiotic sensitivity, with negative implications for serious bacterial infections such as those associated with cystic fibrosis, where quinolones are among the few viable antibiotics.

                                     

5. Inappropriate use

Antibiotics have no effect on viral infections such as the common cold. They are also ineffective against sore throats, which are usually viral and self-resolving. Most cases of bronchitis 90–95% are viral as well, passing after a few weeks - the use of antibiotics against bronchitis is superfluous and can put the patient at risk of suffering adverse reactions. If you take an antibiotic when you have a viral infection, the antibiotic attacks bacteria in your body, bacteria that are either beneficial or at least not causing disease. This misdirected treatment can then promote antibiotic-resistant properties in harmless bacteria that can be shared with other bacteria, or create an opportunity for potentially harmful bacteria to replace the harmless ones.

Official guidelines by the American Heart Association for dental antibiotic prophylaxis call for the administration of antibiotics to prevent infective endocarditis. Though the current 2007 guidelines dictate more restricted antibiotic use, many dentists and dental patients follow the 1997 guidelines instead, leading to overuse of antibiotics.

A study by Imperial College London in February 2017 found that of 20 online websites, 9 would provide antibiotics illegally without a prescription to UK residents.

                                     

5.1. Inappropriate use Antibiotics in livestock

There has been massive use of antibiotics in animal husbandry. The most abundant use of antimicrobials worldwide is in livestock; they are typically distributed in animal feed or water for purposes such as disease prevention and growth promotion. Debates have arisen surrounding the extent of the impact of these antibiotics, particularly antimicrobial growth promoters, on human antibiotic resistance. Although some sources assert that there remains a lack of knowledge on which antibiotic use generates the most risk to humans, policies and regulations have been placed to limit any harmful effects, such as the potential of bacteria developing antibiotic resistance within livestock, and that bacteria transferring resistance genes to human pathogens On January 1, 2017, the FDA enacted legislation to require that all human medically important feed-grade antibiotics many prior over-the-counter-drugs become classified as Veterinary Feed Directive drugs VFD. This action requires that farmers establish and work with veterinaries to receive a written VFD order. The effect of this act places a requirement on an established veterinarian-client-patient relationship VCPR. Through this relationship, farmers will receive an increased education in the form of advice and guidance from their veterinarian. Resistant bacteria in food can cause infections in humans. Similar to humans, giving antibiotics to food animals will kill most bacteria, but resistant bacteria can survive. When food animals are slaughtered and processed, resistant germs in the animal gut can contaminate the meat or other animal products. Resistant germs from the animal gut can also get into the environment, like water and soil, from animal manure. If animal manure or water containing resistant germs are used on fruits, vegetables, or other produce as fertilizer or irrigation, then this can spread resistant germs.



                                     
  • required are reduced, thereby also reducing the risk of antibiotic misuse Topical antibiotics applied over certain types of surgical wounds have been
  • A quinolone antibiotic is a member of a large group of broad - spectrum bacteriocidals that share a bicyclic core structure related to the substance 4 - quinolone
  • Antibiotic use in livestock is the use of antibiotics for any purpose in the husbandry of livestock, which includes treatment when ill therapeutic
  • include only using antibiotics when needed, thereby stopping misuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials. Narrow - spectrum antibiotics are preferred over broad - spectrum
  • 205.7.537. PMID 5695313. Schollenberg, E. Albritton WL 1980 Antibiotic misuse in a pediatric teaching hospital Can Med Assoc J. 122 1 49 52
  • building and advocacy at the global and grassroots levels. Wide - scale misuse of antibiotics and other antimicrobials and related resistance to these drugs is
  • bacterial production. Penicillin and other antibiotics effectively treated microbial infections. However, antibiotic misuse has resulted in resistance of pathogens
  • Owner Should Know About Antibiotics - Dogs Naturally Magazine 27 May 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2017. The Dangers of Antibiotic Misuse and Your Dog - Whole
  • strep throat with antibiotics such as penicillin, decreases the risk of developing rheumatic fever. In order to avoid antibiotic misuse this often involves