# ⓘ Empirical laws ..

## Birks' law

Birks law is an empirical formula for the light yield per path length as a function of the energy loss per path length for a particle traversing a scintillator, and gives a relation that is not linear at high loss rates.

## Dolbear's law

Dolbears law states the relationship between the air temperature and the rate at which crickets chirp. It was formulated by Amos Dolbear and published in 1897 in an article called "The Cricket as a Thermometer". Dolbears observations on the relation between chirp rate and temperature were preceded by an 1881 report by Margarette W. Brooks, although this paper went unnoticed until after Dolbears publication. Dolbear did not specify the species of cricket which he observed, although subsequent researchers assumed it to be the snowy tree cricket, Oecanthus niveus ". However, the snowy tree cr ...

## Heaps' law

In linguistics, Heaps law is an empirical law which describes the number of distinct words in a document as a function of the document length. It can be formulated as V R n = K n β {\displaystyle V_{R}n=Kn^{\beta }} where V R is the number of distinct words in an instance text of size n. K and β are free parameters determined empirically. With English text corpora, typically K is between 10 and 100, and β is between 0.4 and 0.6. The law is frequently attributed to Harold Stanley Heaps, but was originally discovered by Gustav Herdan 1960. Under mild assumptions, the Herdan–Heaps law is asym ...

## Koide formula

The Koide formula is an unexplained empirical equation discovered by Yoshio Koide in 1981. In its original form, it relates the masses of the three charged leptons; later authors have extended the relation to neutrinos, quarks, and other families of particles.

## Leuckart's law

Leuckarts law is an empirical law in zoology that states that the size of the eye of an animal is related to its maximum speed of movement; fast-moving animals have larger eyes, after allowing for the effects of body mass. The hypothesis dates from 1876, and in older literature is usually referred to as Leuckarts ratio. It was proposed by Rudolf Leuckart in 1876. The principle was initially applied to birds; it has also been applied to mammals.

## Marconi's law

Marconis law is the relation between length of antennas and maximum signaling distance of radio transmissions. Guglielmo Marconi enunciated at one time an empirical law that, for simple vertical sending and receiving antennas of equal height, the maximum working telegraphic distance varied as the square of the height of the antenna. It has been stated that the rule was tested in experiments made on Salisbury Plain in 1897, and also by experiments made by Italian naval officers on behalf of the Royal Italian Navy in 1900 and 1901. Captain Quintino Bonomo gave a report of these experiments i ...

## ⓘ Empirical laws

• The nature of scientific laws has been much discussed in philosophy, but in essence scientific laws are simply empirical conclusions reached by scientific
• An empirical statistical law or in popular terminology a law of statistics represents a type of behaviour that has been found across a number of datasets
• context, the term semi - empirical is used for qualifying theoretical methods that use, in part, basic axioms or postulated scientific laws and experimental results
• principle subject to revision in the face of empirical data, including the so - called analytic propositions. Thus the laws of logic, being paradigmatic cases of
• In probability theory, an empirical process is a stochastic process that describes the proportion of objects in a system in a given state. For a process
• In science, an empirical relationship or phenomenological relationship is a relationship or correlation that is supported by experiment and observation
• Zipf s law zɪf not tsɪpf as in German is an empirical law formulated using mathematical statistics that refers to the fact that many types of data
• In statistics, an empirical distribution function is the distribution function associated with the empirical measure of a sample. This cumulative distribution
• In linguistics, Heaps law also called Herdan s law is an empirical law which describes the number of distinct words in a document or set of documents