ⓘ Outline of knowledge. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to knowledge: Knowledge – familiarity with someone or something, whi ..

                                     

ⓘ Outline of knowledge

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to knowledge:

Knowledge – familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, and/or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit as with practical skill or expertise or explicit as with the theoretical understanding of a subject; and it can be more or less formal or systematic.

                                     

1.1. Types of knowledge By form

  • A priori and a posteriori knowledge – these terms are used with respect to reasoning epistemology to distinguish necessary conclusions from first premises.
  • A priori knowledge or justification – knowledge that is independent of experience, as with mathematics 3+2=5, tautologies "All bachelors are unmarried", and deduction from pure reason e.g., ontological proofs.
  • A posteriori knowledge or justification – knowledge dependent on experience or empirical evidence, as with most aspects of science and personal knowledge.
  • Empirical evidence – also referred to as empirical data, empirical knowledge, and sense experience, it is a collective term for the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation. After Immanuel Kant, it is common in philosophy to call the knowledge thus gained a posteriori knowledge. This is contrasted with a priori knowledge, the knowledge accessible from pure reason alone.
  • Experience – knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
  • Experiential knowledge –
  • Descriptive knowledge – also called declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, it is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions. This is distinguished from what is commonly known as "know-how" or procedural knowledge, and "knowing of", or knowledge by acquaintance the knowledge of somethings existence.
  • Libre knowledge – knowledge released in such a way that users are free to read, listen to, watch, or otherwise experience it; to learn from or with it; to copy, adapt and use it for any purpose; and to share the work unchanged or modified. Whilst shared tacit knowledge is regarded as implicitly libre, explicit libre knowledge is defined as a generalisation of the libre software definition.
  • Knowledge by acquaintance – according to Bertrand Russell, knowledge by acquaintance is obtained through a direct causal experience-based interaction between a person and the object that person is perceiving. Sense-data from that object are the only things that people can ever become acquainted with; they can never truly KNOW the physical object itself. The distinction between "knowledge by acquaintance" and "knowledge by description" was promoted by Russell notably in his 1905 paper On Denoting. Russell was extremely critical of the equivocal nature of the word "know", and believed that the equivocation arose from a failure to distinguish between the two fundamentally different types of knowledge.
  • Explicit knowledge – knowledge that can be readily articulated, codified, accessed and verbalized. It can be easily transmitted to others. Most forms of explicit knowledge can be stored in certain media. The information contained in encyclopedias and textbooks are good examples of explicit knowledge.
  • Tacit knowledge – kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it. For example, that London is in the United Kingdom is a piece of explicit knowledge that can be written down, transmitted, and understood by a recipient. However, the ability to speak a language, knead dough, play a musical instrument or design and use complex equipment requires all sorts of knowledge that is not always known explicitly, even by expert practitioners, and which is difficult or impossible to explicitly transfer to other users.
  • Procedural knowledge – also known as imperative knowledge, it is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. Commonly referred to as "knowing-how" and opposed to "knowing-that" descriptive knowledge.
  • Extelligence – term coined by Ian Stewart and Jack Cohen in their 1997 book Figments of Reality. They define it as the cultural capital that is available to us in the form of external media.
                                     

1.2. Types of knowledge By scope

  • Mutual knowledge – Information known by all participatory agents
  • Self-knowledge – information that an individual draws upon when finding an answer to the question "What am I like?".
  • Foundational knowledge – the knowledge necessary for understanding or usefully applying further knowledge in a field.
  • General knowledge – information that has been accumulated over time through various mediums. This definition excludes highly specialized learning that can only be obtained with extensive training and information confined to a single medium. General knowledge is an important component of crystallized intelligence and is strongly associated with general intelligence, and with openness to experience.
  • Traditional knowledge – knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities. Traditional knowledge includes types of knowledge about traditional technologies of subsistence e.g. tools and techniques for hunting or agriculture, midwifery, ethnobotany and ecological knowledge, traditional medicine, celestial navigation, ethnoastronomy, the climate, and others. These kinds of knowledge, crucial for subsistence and survival, are generally based on accumulations of empirical observation and on interaction with the environment.
  • Domain knowledge – valid knowledge used to refer to an area of human endeavour, an autonomous computer activity, or other specialized discipline.
  • Common knowledge – knowledge that is known by everyone or nearly everyone, usually with reference to the community in which the term is used.
  • Traditional ecological knowledge –
  • Metaknowledge – knowledge about knowledge. Bibliographies are a form of metaknowledge. Patterns within scientific literature is another.
  • Customer knowledge – knowledge for, about, or from customers.
                                     

2. Structure of knowledge

Taxonomies –

  • Library classification –
  • Types of subject taxonomies
  • Document classification –
  • Taxonomy for search engines –
  • Figurative System of Human Knowledge –
  • Specific taxonomies of knowledge
  • Propædia – first of three parts of the 15th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, presenting its Outline of Knowledge.
  • Tree of Knowledge System –
                                     

3. Types of bodies of recorded knowledge

  • Academic disciplines – branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education. A scholars discipline is commonly defined and recognized by the university faculties and learned societies to which he or she belongs and the academic journals in which he or she publishes research. However, no formal criteria exist for defining an academic discipline.
  • Curriculi – plural of curriculum, which means the totality of student experiments that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of planned students experiences in terms of the educators or schools instructional goals. Curricula may be tightly standardized, or may include a high level of instructor or learner autonomy. Many countries have national curricula in primary and secondary education, such as the United Kingdoms National Curriculum.
  • Personal knowledge base –
  • Encyclopedias – type of reference work or compendium holding a comprehensive summary of information from either all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries, which are usually accessed alphabetically by article name. Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Generally speaking, unlike dictionary entries, which focus on linguistic information about words, encyclopedia articles focus on factual information concerning the subject for which the article is named.
  • Body of knowledge BOK – specialized term in knowledge representation meaning the set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant learned society or professional association.
  • Knowledge base –
  • Knowledge commons –
  • Libraries – a library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A librarys collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items.


                                     

4. Specific bodies of recorded knowledge, by type

  • Data Management Body of Knowledge
  • Common Body of Knowledge
  • Project Management Body of Knowledge
  • Specific BOKs bodies of knowledge, in the context of the knowledge representation field
  • Software Engineering Body of Knowledge
  • A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge
  • Canadian IT Body of Knowledge
  • Enterprise Architecture Body of Knowledge
  • Geographic Information Science and Technology Body of Knowledge
  • Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge
  • List of encyclopedias by language
  • List of historical encyclopedias
  • Bibliography of encyclopedias
  • Specific encyclopedias
  • Wikipedia – largest encyclopedia in the world. It is a free, web-based, collaborative, multilingual encyclopedia project supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Its more than 20 million articles over 5.04 million in English have been written collaboratively by volunteers around the world. Almost all of its articles can be edited by anyone with access to the site, and it has about 100.000 regularly active contributors.
  • List of online encyclopedias
  • List of encyclopedias by branch of knowledge
  • Knowledge Vault – knowledge base created by Google. As of 2014, it contained 1.6 billion facts which had been collated automatically from the Internet.
  • Specific knowledge bases
                                     

5. Epistemology philosophy of knowledge

Epistemology – philosophy of knowledge. It is the study of knowledge and justified belief. It questions what knowledge is and how it can be acquired, and the extent to which knowledge pertinent to any given subject or entity can be acquired. Much of the debate in this field has focused on the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification.

  • Theory of knowledge IB course – a course related to epistemology
  • Knowledge neglect – failure to apply knowledge
  • DIKW pyramid – theoretical model of the relationship between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom


                                     

6. Management of knowledge

Knowledge management –

  • Knowledge organization effort –
  • Knowledge balance sheet –
  • Knowledge mobilization –
  • Chief knowledge officer –
  • Knowledge organization system –
  • Knowledge ecosystem –
  • Knowledge worker –
  • Knowledge organization company or agency –
  • Knowledge transfer –
                                     

6.1. Management of knowledge Obtaining knowledge

Methods of obtaining knowledge –

  • Research –
  • Space exploration –
  • Experimentation –
  • Exploration –
  • Scientific method –
  • Revelation –
  • Knowledge building –
  • Learning –
  • Autodidactism – self-education; act of self-directed learning about a subject or subjects in which one has had little to no formal education.
  • Knowledge building communities –
  • Studying –
  • Reading –
                                     

6.2. Management of knowledge Knowledge storage

Knowledge can be stored in:

  • Knowledge graph – another name for ontology
  • Commonsense knowledge base – database containing all the general knowledge that most people possess, represented in a way that it is available to artificial intelligence programs that use natural language or make inferences about the ordinary world.
  • Books –
  • Ontology – formal naming and definition of the types, properties, and interrelationships of the entities that really or fundamentally exist for a particular domain of discourse.
  • Knowledge bases –
  • Knowledge Graph – knowledge base used by Google to enhance its search engines search results with semantic search information gathered from a wide variety of sources
  • Knowledge representation AI –
  • Body of knowledge BOK – complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant learned society or professional association
  • Libraries –
  • Memory –


                                     

6.3. Management of knowledge Knowledge retrieval

Knowledge retrieval – Stored knowledge can be retrieved by:

  • Knowledge Graph – knowledge base used by Google to enhance its search engines search results with semantic search information gathered from a wide variety of sources
  • Knowledge Engine Wikimedia Foundation – search engine project by the Wikimedia Foundation
  • Wolfram Alpha – computational knowledge engine or answer engine developed by Wolfram Research
  • Google Search – powered by
  • Knowledge engine
  • Knowledge discovery –
  • Reading –
                                     

6.4. Management of knowledge Imparting knowledge

Imparting knowledge means spreading or disseminating knowledge to others.

  • Educational methods
  • Storytelling –
  • Training –
  • Teaching –
  • Communication – purposeful activity of information exchange between two or more participants in order to convey or receive the intended meanings through a shared system of signs and semiotic rules. The basic steps of communication are the forming of communicative intent, message composition, message encoding, transmission of signal, reception of signal, message decoding and interpretation of the message by the recipient. Examples of methods of communication used to impart knowledge include: Writing and Publishing.
  • Directed research –
  • Education – process of facilitating learning.
  • Discussion –
  • Knowledge transfer –
  • Knowledge cafe –
  • Knowledge sharing – activity through which knowledge is exchanged among people, friends, families, communities for example, Wikipedia, or organizations.
  • Knowledge translation –


                                     

7. History of the knowledge of humanity

  • Historiography History of history –
  • History of exploration –
  • History of space exploration –
  • History of science –
  • History of philosophy –
  • Taxes on knowledge –
  • History of libraries –
  • History of invention –
  • Knowledge deities –


                                     

8. Knowledge and society

Economics of knowledge

  • Knowledge economy –
  • Intellectual capital –
  • Knowledge broker –
  • Knowledge services –
  • Knowledge Economic Index –
  • Knowledge market –
  • Knowledge gap hypothesis –
  • Knowledge spillover –
  • Monopolies of knowledge –
  • Knowledge value –

Politics of knowledge

  • Local knowledge problem –
  • Knowledge society –
  • Open access –
  • Knowledge assessment methodology –
  • Access to Knowledge movement –
  • Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities –
  • World Brain –
  • Scientia potentia est – Latin for "knowledge is power".
  • The Cost of Knowledge protest –

Sociology of knowledge

Sociology of knowledge –

  • Knowledge space –
  • Knowledge community –
                                     

9. Knowledge technology

  • Knowledge engineer –
  • Knowledge base –
  • Knowledge acquisition –
  • Knowledge-based systems –
  • Knowledge engineering –
  • Knowledge level modeling –
  • Knowledge level –
  • Knowledge modeling –
  • Knowledge extraction –
  • Knowledge management see above –
                                     

10. Knowledge of humanity

The worlds knowledge possessed by human civilization

  • Literature
  • Humanities and arts
  • Classics
  • Dance
  • Music
  • Theatre
  • History
  • Performing arts
  • Painting
  • Religion
  • Media type
  • Visual arts
  • Philosophy
  • Economics
  • Trade
  • Anthropology
  • Social sciences
  • Geography
  • Education
  • Jurisprudence
  • Law
  • Sociology
  • Psychology
  • Political science
  • Linguistics / Language
  • Science
  • Mathematics
  • Natural Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Astronomy
  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Biology
  • Chemical engineering
  • Civil engineering
  • Electrical engineering
  • Industrial engineering
  • Engineering / Technology
  • Aerospace engineering
  • Biomedical engineering
  • Environmental engineering
  • Biotechnology / Biological engineering
  • Computer science / Computer engineering
  • Marine engineering / Naval architecture
  • Nuclear science and engineering
  • Electronics engineering
  • Materials science and engineering
  • Mechanical engineering
  • Dentistry and oral health
  • Medicine and surgery
  • Veterinary medicine / Veterinary surgery
  • Healthcare sciences
                                     

11. Publications

Books

  • Knowledge and Its Limits –
  • A Guide for the Perplexed – critique of materialist scientism and an exploration of the nature and organization of knowledge. By E. F. Schumacher.

Journals

  • Journal of Knowledge Management Practice –
  • Journal of Information & Knowledge Management –
  • Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management –
  • Journal of Web Semantics –
  • Journal of Knowledge Management –
  • Journal of Information Science –
  • Knowledge Management Research & Practice –