ⓘ Psychochemical warfare involves the use of psychopharmacological agents with the intention of incapacitating an adversary through the temporary induction of hal ..


ⓘ Psychochemical warfare

Psychochemical warfare involves the use of psychopharmacological agents with the intention of incapacitating an adversary through the temporary induction of hallucinations or delirium. These agents have generally been considered chemical weapons and, more narrowly, constitute a specific type of incapacitating agent. Although never developed into an effective weapons system, psychochemical warfare theory and research - along with overlapping mind control drug research - was secretly pursued in the mid-20th century by the US military and Central Intelligence Agency in the context of the Cold War. These research programs were ended when they came to light and generated controversy in the 1970s. The degree to which the Soviet Union developed or deployed similar agents during the same period remains largely unknown.


1.1. History Ancient psycho-chemical use

The use of chemicals to induce altered states of mind dates back to antiquity and includes the use of plants such as thornapple Datura stramonium that contain combinations of anticholinergic alkaloids. In 184 B.C., Hannibals army used belladonna plants to induce disorientation.


1.2. History Use by indigenous peoples

Records indicate that in 1611, in the British Jamestown Colony of Virginia, an unidentified, but toxic and hallucinogenic, drug derived from local plants was deployed with some success against the white settlers by Chief Powhatan.

In 1881, members of a French railway surveying expedition crossing Tuareg territory in North Africa ate dried dates that tribesmen had apparently deliberately contaminated with Egyptian henbane Hyoscyamus muticus, or H. falezlez, to devastating effect.


1.3. History Modern military research

In the 1950s, the CIA investigated LSD lysergic acid diethylamide as part of its Project MKUltra. In the same period, the US Army undertook the secret Edgewood Arsenal human experiments which grew out of the U.S. chemical warfare program and involved studies of several hundred volunteer test subjects. Britain was also investigating the possible use of LSD and the chemical BZ 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate as nonlethal battlefield drug-weapons. The United States eventually weaponized BZ for delivery in the M43 BZ cluster bomb until stocks were destroyed in 1989. Both the US and Britain concluded that the desired effects of drug weapons were unpredictable under battlefield conditions and gave up experimentation.

Reports of drug weapons associated with the Soviet bloc have been considered unreliable given the apparent absence of documentation in state archives. Hungarian researcher Lajos Rosza wrote that records of Hungarys State Defense Council meetings from 1962 to 1978 suggest that the Warsaw Pact forum had considered a psychochemical agent such as methylamphetamine as a possible weapon.

  • pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Some of the studies were directed at psychochemical warfare and named the Medical Research Volunteer Program 1956 1975
  • Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Toxins and psychochemical weapons are often referred to as midspectrum agents. Unlike bioweapons
  • for almost a decade 1960 1969 on the U.S. military s top secret psychochemical warfare program at the Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland, which pursued research
  • Agents and Munitions List of chemical warfare agents List of highly toxic gases Ronald Maddison Psychochemical weapon Saint Julien Memorial Sardasht A
  • Entomological warfare EW is a type of biological warfare that uses insects to interrupt supply lines by damaging crops, or direct harm to enemy combatants
  • with Agent 15 - a hallucinogenic chemical similar to BZ - or any other psychochemical Agent 15 became an issue after a 9 February 1998 British press release
  • secret psychochemical warfare program, relates a story relevant to the concept of a knockout gas in his 2006 memoir, entitled Chemical Warfare Secrets
  • experiments were executed in an effort to create a viable form of psychochemical warfare Ketchum told Khatchadourian about the experiments that took place
  • MKUltra Military medicine Neuroenhancement Nootropic Supersoldier Psychochemical warfare Academy of Military Medical Sciences Stoker, Liam 14 April 2013
  • Exposure To Chemical Agents. Vol. 2: Cholinesterase Reactivators, Psychochemicals and Irritants and Vesicants. Commission on Life Sciences. The National