# ⓘ Medical statistics ..

## Armitage–Doll multistage model of carcinogenesis

The Armitage–Doll model is a statistical model of carcinogenesis, proposed in 1954 by Peter Armitage and Richard Doll, which suggested that a sequence of multiple distinct genetic events preceded the onset of cancer. The original paper has recently been reprinted with a set of commentary articles.

## Attack rate

In epidemiology, the attack rate is the biostatistical measure of frequency of morbidity, the percentage of the population which contracts the disease, in an at risk population. It is used in hypothetical predictions and during actual outbreaks of disease. An at risk population is defined as one that has no immunity to the attacking pathogen which can be either a novel pathogen or an established pathogen. It is used to project the number of victims to expect during an epidemic. This aids in marshalling resources for delivery of medical care as well as production of vaccines and/or anti-vir ...

## Average treatment effect

The average treatment effect is a measure used to compare treatments in randomized experiments, evaluation of policy interventions, and medical trials. The ATE measures the difference in mean outcomes between units assigned to the treatment and units assigned to the control. In a randomized trial, the average treatment effect can be estimated from a sample using a comparison in mean outcomes for treated and untreated units. However, the ATE is generally understood as a causal parameter that a researcher desires to know, defined without reference to the study design or estimation procedure. ...

## Barber–Johnson diagram

A Barber–Johnson diagram is a method of presenting hospital statistics combining four different variables in a unique graph, introduced in 1973. The method constructs a scattergram where length of stay, turnover interval, discharges, and deaths per available bed are combined. These four variables have a common relationship between them and their combination in the diagram permitted a new improved way for analyzing efficiency and performance of the hospital sector. The most complete reference about how to construct the diagram could be found in Yates. In this book, the appendix explains in ...

Berksons paradox also known as Berksons bias or Berksons fallacy is a result in conditional probability and statistics which is often found to be counterintuitive, and hence a veridical paradox. It is a complicating factor arising in statistical tests of proportions. Specifically, it arises when there is an ascertainment bias inherent in a study design. The effect is related to the explaining away phenomenon in Bayesian networks, and conditioning on a collider in graphical models. It is often described in the fields of medical statistics or biostatistics, as in the original description of ...

## Bland–Altman plot

A Bland–Altman plot in analytical chemistry or biomedicine is a method of data plotting used in analyzing the agreement between two different assays. It is identical to a Tukey mean-difference plot, the name by which it is known in other fields, but was popularised in medical statistics by J. Martin Bland and Douglas G. Altman.

## ⓘ Medical statistics

• Medical statistics deals with applications of statistics to medicine and the health sciences, including epidemiology, public health, forensic medicine
• Statistics in Medicine is a peer - reviewed statistics journal published by Wiley. Established in 1982, the journal publishes articles on medical statistics
• toxicology, reproduction, immuno - haematology, oncology, medical statistics etc. Its 6 regional medical research centres address themselves to regional health
• Pharmaceutical Statistics Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology Statistical Methods in Medical Research Statistics in Biopharmaceutical
• Centre in Headington. The CSM incorporates the Cancer Research UK Medical Statistics Group MSG Oxford Clinical Trial Research Unit statisticians and
• In descriptive statistics summary statistics are used to summarize a set of observations, in order to communicate the largest amount of information as
• Medical debt refers to debt incurred by individuals due to health care costs and related expenses. Medical debt is different from other forms of debt
• statistical fallacy. The false statistics trap can be quite damaging for the quest for knowledge. For example, in medical science, correcting a falsehood
• processing Jurimetrics law Medical statistics Political science Psychological statistics Reliability engineering Social statistics Statistical mechanics In