ⓘ Kote Abkhazi. Prince Konstantine Abkhazi აფხაზი, was a notable Georgian military officer, politician and public figure. During the Imperial Russian rule, he was ..


ⓘ Kote Abkhazi

Prince Konstantine Abkhazi აფხაზი), was a notable Georgian military officer, politician and public figure. During the Imperial Russian rule, he was a General-major of Artillery in the tsars army and in the national army of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, and a recognized leader of the liberal nobility of Georgia. After the Soviet Occupation of Georgia, he emerged as one of the leaders of an underground anti-Soviet, national-liberation movement. One of the founders of the Tbilisi State University in 1918 and Chairman of the Georgian National-Democratic Party in 1921-1923. In 1923, he was arrested and executed by the Soviet security police.


1. Early life and career

Konstantine Kote Abkhazi was born in the village of Kardenakhi, Kakheti Eastern Georgia, to a wealthy aristocratic family, the son of the General-major of the tsarist Russian army, Prince Nikoloz Niko Abkhazi and Princess Nino nee Chavchavadze, the sister of an outstanding Georgian writer and public figure Ilia Chavchavadze.

Abkhazi graduated from the Tbilisi Cadet Corps and the St. Petersburg Military Academy and joined the Russian army in 1890. Later, he was actively involved in Georgias public life and sponsored several social and economic projects, including the construction of the Kakhetian railway between 1906 and 1913. In 1913, he was elected the marshal of nobility of the Tiflis Governorate, but he was called to an active army service with the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Being promoted to major general in 1916, he commanded an artillery brigade from 1914 to 1916. In 1916, he was elected to the State Duma of the Russian Empire for Tiflis.


2. Revolution

Returning to Georgia, he was reelected the marshal and helped found the National Democratic Party of Georgia in 1917. Under his leadership, Georgian nobility declared its property national. Abkhazi was involved in the establishment of Tbilisi State University in February 1918 and in the proclamation of independence of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in May 1918. In 1917-1919 he was a Member of the National Council of Georgia. He became a Chairman of the National-Democratic Party in 1921. Early in 1921, Georgia was invaded and occupied by Soviet Russias Red Army, forcing the Georgian government to flee the country. Abkhazi stayed in Georgia, however, and joined the underground movement Committee for Independence of Georgia where he headed its Military Center. He guided the organization of guerrilla groups in Pshavi-Khevsureti, and Kakheti 1921–23. However, in March 1923, Abkhazi and 14 other members of the Military Center were arrested by the GPU, and were shot for anti-Soviet activities on May 20, 1923. He is quoted to have said prior to the execution:

Abkhazis son, Nicholas 1900-1987 and his Shanghai-born spouse Peggy Pemberton Carter died 1994 moved to Canada and, beginning from 1946, built a well-known "Abkhazi Garden" at Vancouver Island, Victoria, British Columbia.


3. Literature

  • Alexander Mikaberidze 2007, Abkhazi, Constantine. The Dictionary of Georgian National Biography.
  • in Georgian Ushangi Sidamonidze 1997, "Abkhazi, Konstantine". Encyclopedia "Sakartvelo", vol. I, Tbilisi, pp. 256–257.
  • in Georgian Journal "Samshoblo", No: 21-22, Paris, 1937.
  • in Georgian Levan Urushadze 2012, "For the Biography of General Konstantine Kote Abkhazi". Bulletin of the Georgian National Museum, Series of Social Sciences, No 348-B, pp. 230–246.
  • in Georgian Journal "Mkhedari", Paris, No: 2, 1929, pp. 22–23.