ⓘ Environmental health ..

Ecosystem health

Ecosystem health is a metaphor used to describe the condition of an ecosystem. Ecosystem condition can vary as a result of fire, flooding, drought, extinctions, invasive species, climate change, mining, overexploitation in fishing, farming or logging, chemical spills, and a host of other reasons. There is no universally accepted benchmark for a healthy ecosystem, rather the apparent health status of an ecosystem can vary depending upon which health metrics are employed in judging it and which societal aspirations are driving the assessment. Advocates of the health metaphor argue for its si ...

Environmental enteropathy

Environmental enteropathy is a disorder of chronic intestinal inflammation. EE is most common amongst children living in low-resource settings. Acute symptoms are typically minimal or absent. EE can lead to malnutrition, anemia, growth stunting, impaired brain development, and impaired response to oral vaccinations. The cause of EE is multifactorial. Overall, exposure to contaminated food and water leads to a generalized state of intestinal inflammation. The inflammatory response results in multiple pathological changes to the gastrointestinal tract: Smaller villi, larger crypts called cry ...

Environmental epidemiology

Environmental epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology concerned with determining how environmental exposures impact human health. This field seeks to understand how various external risk factors may predispose to or protect against disease, illness, injury, developmental abnormalities, or death. These factors may be naturally occurring or may be introduced into environments where people live, work, and play.

Environmental hazard

An environmental hazard is a substance, a state or an event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment / or adversely affect peoples health, including n" and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes. Any single or combination of toxic chemical, biological, or physical agents in the environment, resulting from human activities or natural processes, that may impact the health of exposed subjects, including pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, biological contaminants, toxic waste, industrial and home chemicals. Human-made hazards while not immediat ...

Environmental health ethics

Environmental health ethics is a field of study that combines environmental health policies and ethical consideration towards a mutually acceptable goal. Given the myriad of environmental issues facing society today a sound ethical background can be applied in an attempt to reach a compromise between conflicting interests, like anthropocentrism, global stewardship, religious values, economic development, and public health. A small sample of the scientific disciplines involved in environmental health ethics include: ecology, toxicology, epidemiology, and exposure biology.

Environmental health officer

Environmental Health Officers are responsible for carrying out measures for protecting public health, including administering and enforcing legislation related to environmental health and providing support to minimize health and safety hazards. Environmental Health Practitioners are multi-skilled in many areas with individuals being highly trained, usually to degree level, and often requiring additional professional training, professional competency assessment and continuing professional development in order to continue to practise in the field. They are involved in a variety of activities ...

Environmental health policy

Environmental health policy is the interplay between the environment and health, and how the environment can affect human health. Policies are created by governments and organizations where they see the issues arising in the health of their jurisdiction related to the environment. There are several environmental factors that can contribute to health including air quality, climate change, toxic drinking water, and toxic chemical exposure. Depending on the region the policy is in, different environmental factors are going to be addressed in the policy. Some effects of the environment on heal ...

Environmental medicine

Not to be confused with Clinical ecology sometimes also called "environmental medicine". Environmental medicine is a multidisciplinary field involving medicine, environmental science, chemistry and others, overlapping with environmental pathology. It may be viewed as the medical branch of the broader field of environmental health. The scope of this field involves studying the interactions between environment and human health, and the role of the environment in causing or mediating disease. This specialist field of study holds the basic assumption that health is more widely and dramatically ...

Environmental risk transition

Environmental risk transition is the process by which traditional communities with associated environmental health issues become more economically developed and experience new health issues. In traditional or economically undeveloped regions, humans often suffer and die from infectious diseases or of malnutrition due to poor food, water, and air quality. As economic development occurs, these environmental issues are reduced or solved, and others begin to arise. There is a shift in the character of these environmental changes, and as a result, a shift in causes of death and disease.

Exposure assessment

Exposure assessment is a branch of environmental science and occupational hygiene that focuses on the processes that take place at the interface between the environment containing the contaminant of interest and the organism being considered. These are the final steps in the path to release an environmental contaminant, through transport to its effect in a biological system. It tries to measure how much of a contaminant can be absorbed by an exposed target organism, in what form, at what rate and how much of the absorbed amount is actually available to produce a biological effect. Although ...