ⓘ Diseases and disorders ..

Component causes

A component cause of a disease is an event required for the disease to develop. Given a disease or medical condition, there is a causality chain of events from the first event to the appearance of the clinical disease A cause of a disease event is an event that preceded the disease event in a disease causal chain. Without this antecedent event the disease event either would not have occurred at all or would not have occurred until some later time. However, no specific event is sufficient by itself to produce disease. Hence such an event is a component of a sufficient cause.

Degenerative disease

Degenerative disease is the result of a continuous process based on degenerative cell changes, affecting tissues or organs, which will increasingly deteriorate over time. In neurodegenerative diseases cells of the central nervous system stop working or die via neurodegeneration. An example of this is Alzheimers disease. The other two common groups of degenerative diseases are those that affect circulatory system e.g. coronary artery disease and neoplastic diseases e.g. cancers. Many degenerative diseases exist and some are related to aging. Normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as e ...

Disease resistance

Disease resistance is the ability to prevent or reduce the presence of diseases in otherwise susceptible hosts. It can arise from genetic or environmental factors, such as incomplete penetrance. Disease tolerance is different as it is the ability of a host to limit the impact of disease on host health.

Diseases of abnormal polymerization

Diseases of Abnormal Polymerization, termed DAPs for short, are a class of disorders characterized by a novel alteration in base unit proteins that results in a structure with pathogenic potential. This functional alteration in a protein in relation to its thermodynamic and kinetic properties enacts an extended chain response among neighboring proteins until an extensive and potentially harmful polymerized structure is formed. Due to this endogenous foreign formation, these diseases are often untreatable and very severe in clinical manifestation. Although DAPs rare infections, the poor out ...

Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome

Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome, also known as infantile parkinsonism-dystonia, is a rare movement disorder that causes progressively worsening dystonia and parkinsonism. It is the first known inherited dopamine transportophathy. DTDS is an extremely rare disease; only about 20 affected individuals have been described in the medical literature. Researchers believe this condition is likely underdiagnosed because its signs and symptoms overlap with other movement disorders, including cerebral palsy. The onset of DTDS is a continuum that ranges from early-onset DTDS in the first 6 mo ...

Environmental disease

In epidemiology, environmental diseases are diseases that can be directly attributed to environmental factors. Apart from the true monogenic genetic disorders, environmental diseases may determine the development of disease in those genetically predisposed to a particular condition. Stress, physical and mental abuse, diet, exposure to toxins, pathogens, radiation, and chemicals found in almost all personal care products and household cleaners are possible causes of a large segment of non-hereditary disease. If a disease process is concluded to be the result of a combination of genetic and ...

Environmental factor

An environmental factor, ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms. Abiotic factors include ambient temperature, amount of sunlight, and pH of the water soil in which an organism lives. Biotic factors would include the availability of food organisms and the presence of conspecifics, competitors, predators, and parasites.

Functional disorder

A functional disorder is a medical condition that impairs normal functioning of bodily processes that remains largely undetected under examination, dissection or even under a microscope. At the exterior, there is no appearance of abnormality. This stands in contrast to a structural disorder or a psychosomatic disorder. Definitions vary somewhat between fields of medicine. Generally, the mechanism that causes a functional disorder is unknown, poorly understood, or occasionally unimportant for treatment purposes. The brain or nerves are often believed to be involved. It is common that a pers ...

Heterogeneous condition

Heterogeneous medical condition or heterogeneous disease in medicine are those medical conditions which have several etiologies, like hepatitis or diabetes. Medical conditions are normally defined pathologically or clinically and not etiologically, and therefore it is normal to have more than one cause for them. The word is used as an opposition to homogeneous, meaning that given a group of patients, the disease is the same for all of them. When a condition is heterogeneous, it is normally divided in endotypes.

Infections associated with diseases

Infections associated with diseases are those that are associated with possible infectious etiologies, that meet the requirements of Kochs postulates. Other methods of causation are described by the Bradford Hill criteria and Evidence-based medicine. Kochs postulates have been altered by some epidemiologists based upon sequence-based detection of distinctive pathogenic nucleic acid sequences in tissue samples. Using this method, absolute statements are not always possible regarding causation. Since this is true, higher amounts of distinctive pathogenic nucleic acid sequences would be in th ...