ⓘ Sources of knowledge ..

Epilogism

Epilogism is a style of Inference invented by the ancient Empiric school of medicine. It is a theory-free method of looking at history by accumulating fact with minimal generalization and being conscious of the side effects of making causal claims. Epilogism is an inference which moves entirely within the domain of visible and evident things, it tries not to invoke unobservables. It is tightly knit to the famous "tripos of medicine". See also Doctrines of the Empiric school. See also Causal inference.

Experience

Experience is the first person effects or influence of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it. The term does not imply that useful or long term learning, or the acquisition of skills necessarily takes place as a consequence of the experience, though the two are often associated, and experience is often used as a proxy for competence. A large amount of learning of knowledge and skills is associated with experience, and experience is a necessary, though not always sufficient component of the learning of physical skills. Terms in philosophy such as "empirical know ...

Grok

Grok is a neologism coined by American writer Robert A. Heinlein for his 1961 science fiction novel Stranger in a Strange Land. While the Oxford English Dictionary summarizes the meaning of grok as "to understand intuitively or by empathy, to establish rapport with" and "to empathize or communicate sympathetically ; also, to experience enjoyment", Heinleins concept is far more nuanced, with critic Istvan Csicsery-Ronay Jr. observing that "the books major theme can be seen as an extended definition of the term". The concept of grok garnered significant critical scrutiny in the years after t ...

Inference

Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences; etymologically, the word infer means to "carry forward". Inference is theoretically traditionally divided into deduction and induction, a distinction that in Europe dates at least to Aristotle. Deduction is inference deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true, with the laws of valid inference being studied in logic. Induction is inference from particular premises to a universal conclusion. A third type of inference is sometimes distinguished, notably by Charles Sanders Peirce, disti ...

Knowledge by acquaintance

In philosophy, a distinction is often made between two different kinds of knowledge: knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description. Knowledge by acquaintance is obtained through a direct causal interaction between a person and the object that person is perceiving.

Mathematical proof

A mathematical proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement, showing that the stated assumptions logically guarantee the conclusion. The argument may use other previously established statements, such as theorems; but every proof can, in principle, be constructed using only certain basic or original assumptions known as axioms, along with the accepted rules of inference. Proofs are examples of exhaustive deductive reasoning which establish logical certainty, to be distinguished from empirical arguments or non-exhaustive inductive reasoning which establish "reasonable expect ...