ⓘ Ethical principles ..

Axiom of equity

The axiom of equity was proposed by Samuel Clarke, an English philosopher, in the spirit of the ethic of reciprocity. In his book A Discourse Concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion, and the Truth and Certainty of the Christian Revelation, Clarke wrote: Whatever I judge reasonable or unreasonable for another to do to me; that, by the same judgment, I declare reasonable or unreasonable, that I in the like case should do for him. Hastings Rashdall, in his 1907 book The Theory of Good and Evil, restated the axiom as: One mans good is of as much intrinsic worth as the like ...

Beneficence (ethics)

Beneficence is a concept in research ethics which states that researchers should have the welfare of the research participant as a goal of any clinical trial or other research study. The antonym of this term, maleficence, describes a practice which opposes the welfare of any research participant. The concept that medical professionals and researchers would always practice beneficence seems natural to most patients and research participants, but in fact, every health intervention or research intervention has potential to harm the recipient. There are many different precedents in medicine an ...

Categorical imperative

The categorical imperative is the central philosophical concept in the deontological moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant. Introduced in Kants 1785 Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, it may be defined as a way of evaluating motivations for action. According to Kant, sentient beings occupy a special place in creation, and morality can be summed up in an imperative, or ultimate commandment of reason, from which all duties and obligations derive. He defined an imperative as any proposition declaring a certain action or inaction to be necessary. Hypothetical imperatives apply to someone who ...

Charity (practice)

The practice of charity means the voluntary giving of help to those in need, as a humanitarian act. There are a number of philosophies about charity, often associated with religion. Effective altruism is the use of evidence and reasoning to determine the most effective ways to benefit others.

Clinical equipoise

Clinical equipoise, also known as the principle of equipoise, provides the ethical basis for medical research that involves assigning patients to different treatment arms of a clinical trial. The term was first used by Benjamin Freedman in 1987. In short, clinical equipoise means that there is genuine uncertainty in the expert medical community over whether a treatment will be beneficial. This applies also for off-label treatments performed before or during their required clinical trials. An ethical dilemma arises in a clinical trial when the investigators begin to believe that the treatme ...

Equal consideration of interests

Equal consideration of interests is a moral principle that states that one should both include all affected interests when calculating the rightness of an action and weigh those interests equally. The term "equal consideration of interests" first appeared in Peter Singers Practical Ethics. If all beings, not just human, are included as having interests that must be considered, then the principle of equal consideration of interests opposes not only racism and sexism, but also speciesism.


ⓘ Ethical principles

  • The American Psychological Association APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct for short, the Ethics Code, as referred to by the
  • The Ethical movement, also referred to as the Ethical Culture movement, Ethical Humanism or simply Ethical Culture, is an ethical educational, and religious
  • Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Its full title is the Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research, Report
  • gathering emerged a set of ethical principles against human trafficking, which became known as the Athens Ethical Principles All signatories declare zero
  • instructor. Because teaching is leadership based upon moral and ethical principles The student is positioned into a role where participation means
  • Ethical egoism is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to act in their own self - interest. It differs from psychological egoism, which
  • Ethical limitarianism is an ethical theory relating to priorities of intervention where need or risk might be evident. As the principle of distributive
  • same rules. While there are differences between ethical banks, they do share a desire to uphold principles in the projects they finance, the most frequent
  • Prichard, Moore thought that one could derive principles of obligation from propositions about what is good. Ethical intuitionism suffered a dramatic fall from
  • education in humanist ethical principles This replaced the previous object: The study and dissemination of ethical principles and the cultivation of