ⓘ Injuries ..

Animal attack

Animal attacks are a cause of human injuries and fatalities worldwide. According to the 2012 U.S. Pet Ownership & Demographics Sourcebook, 56% of United States citizens owned a pet. In the United States in 1994, approximately 4.7 million people were bitten by dogs. The frequency of animal attacks varies with geographical location. In the United States, a person is more likely to be killed by a domesticated dog than they are to die from being hit by lightning according to the National Safety Council. Animal attacks have been identified as a major public health problem. "Unprovoked attacks o ...

Avulsion injury

In medicine, an avulsion is an injury in which a body structure is torn off by either trauma or surgery. The term most commonly refers to a surface trauma where all layers of the skin have been torn away, exposing the underlying structures. This is similar to an abrasion but more severe, as body parts such as an eyelid or an ear can be partially or fully detached from the body.

Battle's sign

Battles sign, also known as mastoid ecchymosis, is an indication of fracture of middle cranial fossa of the skull. These fractures may be associated with underlying brain trauma. Battles sign consists of bruising over the mastoid process as a result of extravasation of blood along the path of the posterior auricular artery. The sign is named after William Henry Battle. Battles sign takes at least one day to appear after the initial traumatic basilar skull fracture, similar to raccoon eyes. It is usually seen after head injuries resulting in injury to mastoid process leading to bruising. Ba ...

Blast injury

A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from direct or indirect exposure to an explosion. Blast injuries occur with the detonation of high-order explosives as well as the deflagration of low order explosives. These injuries are compounded when the explosion occurs in a confined space.

Blunt trauma

Blunt trauma is physical trauma to a body part, either by impact, injury or physical attack. The latter is often referred to as blunt force trauma, though it can also result from high-velocity impact. Blunt trauma is the initial trauma, from which develops more specific types such as contusions, abrasions, lacerations, and/or bone fractures. Blunt trauma is contrasted with penetrating trauma, in which an object such as a projectile or knife enters the body, though either can prove fatal.


A bruise, also known as a contusion or ecchymosis, is a type of hematoma of tissue, the most common cause being capillaries damaged by trauma, causing localized bleeding that extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues. Most bruises are not very deep under the skin so that the bleeding causes a visible discoloration. The bruise then remains visible until the blood is either absorbed by tissues or cleared by immune system action. Bruises, which do not blanch under pressure, can involve capillaries at the level of skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, or bone. Bruises are not to be co ...