ⓘ Information ..

Information

Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it is that which answers the question of "what an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and nature of its characteristics. The concept of information has different meanings in different contexts. Thus the concept becomes related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, education, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, representation, and entropy. Information is associated with data, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and information is data in contex ...

Anti-information

Information is that which reduces uncertainty, wholly or in part. Similarly, anti-information is that which increases uncertainty. It is negative information. Noise on a noisy communication channel is an example of anti-information. According to Shannons Channel Coding Theorem the entropy of the noise must be subtracted to obtain the channel capacity that remains available for reliable communication. The gambling industry has made a business out of selling anti-information. People are willing to pay for anti-information. The increase in uncertainty enables them to savor the information tha ...

Bum steer

To give a bum steer is a predominantly Australian, New Zealand and North American idiom that means to provide information, intentionally or unintentionally, that is incorrect, was unhelpful, or caused one to be led astray. The phrase is not generally regarded as pejorative. The idiom, as used in Australia and New Zealand, reached the United States in the 1920s probably after exposure to Australian troops on the Western Front during World War I, and is recorded in the UK since 1944. Its origin is possibly from 19th-century American maritime humour and the difficulty of trying to steer a ves ...

Children's use of information

Childrens use of information is an issue in ethics and child development. Information is learned from many different sources and source monitoring is important in understanding how people use information and decide which information is credible. Consider the example of a parent whose child has been diagnosed with hyperactivity; the parent searches the internet for information, reads books, participates in an online chat room with other parents in the same situation, and consults various medical professionals. Some of these sources will be credible, and others will not. To be well-informed, ...

Community indicators

Community indicators are "measurements that provide information about past and current trends and assist planners and community leaders in making decisions that affect future outcomes". They provide insight into the overall direction of a community: whether it is improving, declining, or staying the same, or is some mix of all three. In essence, indicators are measurements that reflect the interplay between social, environmental, and economic factors affecting a region’s or community’s well-being. Community indicators projects typically are conducted by nonprofit organizations within a com ...

Computational theory of mind

In philosophy, the computational theory of mind refers to a family of views that hold that the human mind is an information processing system and that cognition and consciousness together are a form of computation. Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts were the first to suggest that neural activity is computational. They argued that neural computations explain cognition. The theory was proposed in its modern form by Hilary Putnam in 1967, and developed by his PhD student, philosopher and cognitive scientist Jerry Fodor in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Despite being vigorously disputed in analyti ...