ⓘ Pharmacy ..

Pharmacy

Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing, dispensing, and reviewing drugs and providing additional clinical services. It is a health profession that links health sciences with pharmaceutical sciences and aims to ensure the safe, effective, and affordable use of drugs. The professional practice is becoming more clinically oriented as most of the drugs are now manufactured by pharmaceutical industries. Based on the setting, the pharmacy is classified as a community or institutional pharmacy. Providing direct patient care in the community of institutional pharmacies are considered c ...

Adherence (medicine)

In medicine, patient compliance describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice. Most commonly, it refers to medication or drug compliance, but it can also apply to other situations such as medical device use, self care, self-directed exercises, or therapy sessions. Both patient and health-care provider affect compliance, and a positive physician-patient relationship is the most important factor in improving compliance, The cost of prescription medication also plays a major role. Compliance can be confused with concordance, which is the process by which a patient a ...

Adverse drug reaction

An adverse drug reaction is an injury caused by taking medication. ADRs may occur following a single dose or prolonged administration of a drug or result from the combination of two or more drugs. The meaning of this term differs from the term "side effect" because side effects can be beneficial as well as detrimental. The study of ADRs is the concern of the field known as pharmacovigilance. An adverse drug event refers to any injury occurring at the time a drug is used, whether or not it is identified as a cause of the injury. An ADR is a special type of ADE in which a causative relations ...

Auxiliary label

An auxiliary label or cautionary and advisory label is a label added on to a dispensed medication package by a pharmacist in addition to the usual prescription label. These labels are intended to provide supplementary information regarding safe administration, use, and storage of the medication. Auxiliary labels are generally small stickers consisting of a pictogram and one or more lines of text intended to enhance patient knowledge. Effectiveness of such labels depends on the number of labels, design of the label, and their position on the medication package or vial. Simplifying auxiliary ...

Barrier isolator

Barrier isolator is a general term that includes two types of devices: isolators and restricted access barriers. Both are devices that provide a physical and aerodynamic barrier between the external clean room environment and a work process. The isolator design is the more dependable of the two barrier design choices, as it prevents contamination hazards by achieving a more comprehensive separation of the processing environment from the surrounding facility. Nonetheless, both Isolator and RABS designs are contemporary approaches developed over the last 35 years and a great advancement over ...

Bioburden

Bioburden is normally defined as the number of bacteria living on a surface that has not been sterilized. The term is most often used in the context of bioburden testing, also known as microbial limit testing, which is performed on pharmaceutical products and medical products for quality control purposes. Products or components used in the pharmaceutical or medical field require control of microbial levels during processing and handling. Bioburden or microbial limit testing on these products proves that these requirements have been met. Bioburden testing for medical devices made or used in ...