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Human spaceflight

Human spaceflight is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft. Spacecraft carrying people may be operated directly, by human crew, or it may be either remotely operated from ground stations on Earth or be autonomous, able to c ...

Kosmos 110

Kosmos 110 was a Soviet spacecraft launched on 22 February 1966 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard a Voskhod rocket. It carried two dogs, Veterok and Ugolyok.

Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment

The Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment was an interplanetary mission developed by the Planetary Society. It consisted of sending selected microorganisms on a three-year interplanetary round-trip in a small capsule aboard the Russian Fobos-Gr ...

Mars Gravity Biosatellite

The Mars Gravity Biosatellite was a project initiated as a competition between universities in 2001 by the Mars Society. The aim was to build a spacecraft concept to study the effects of Mars-level gravity on mammals. Presentations were given to ...

List of microorganisms tested in outer space

The survival of some microorganisms exposed to outer space has been studied using both simulated facilities and low Earth orbit exposures. Bacteria were some of the first organisms investigated, when in 1960 a Russian satellite carried Escherichi ...

Plants in space

The growth of plants in outer space has elicited much scientific interest. In the late 20th and 21st century, plants were often taken into space in low Earth orbit to be grown in a weightless but pressurized controlled environment, sometimes call ...

Zond 5

Zond 5 was a spacecraft of the Soviet Zond program. In September 1968 it became the second spaceship to travel to and circle the Moon, and the first to return safely to Earth. Zond 5 carried the first terrestrial organisms to the vicinity of the ...

Zond 6

Zond 6, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched on a lunar flyby mission from a parent satellite in Earth parking orbit. The spacecraft, which carried scientific pr ...

Neontology

Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living organisms. It is the study of extant taxa: taxa with members still alive, as opposed to being extinct. For example: The moose alces is an extant species, and the ...

Organism

In biology, an organism is any individual entity that embodies the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into groups such as multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganis ...

Fauna

Fauna is all of the animal life present in a particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna ...

Flora

Flora is all the plant life present in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring native plants. The corresponding term for animal life is fauna. Flora, fauna, and other forms of life, such as fungi, are collectively referred ...

Francevillian biota

The Francevillian biota is a group of 2.1-billion-year-old Palaeoproterozoic, macroscopic organisms known from fossils found in Gabon in the Palaeoproterozoic Francevillian B Formation, a black shale province. The fossils are regarded as evidence ...

Abiogenesis

Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life, is the natural process by which life has arisen from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. While the details of this process are still unknown, the prevailing scientific hypothesis is ...

Planet Simulator

The Planet Simulator is a machine designed to study the origin of life on planet Earth and beyond. The simulator machine was announced by researchers at McMaster University on behalf of the Origins Institute on 4 October 2018. The machine was dev ...

Akilia

Akilia Island is an island in southwestern Greenland, about 22 kilometers south of Nuuk, at 63.933°N 51.667°W  / 63.933; -51.667. Akilia is the location of a rock formation that has been proposed to contain the oldest known sedimentary rocks on ...

Archean life in the Barberton Greenstone Belt

The Barberton Greenstone Belt of eastern South Africa contains some of the most widely accepted fossil evidence for Archean life. These cell-sized prokaryote fossils are seen in the Barberton fossil record in rocks as old as 3.5 billion years. Th ...

Astrobiology

Astrobiology, formerly known as exobiology, is an interdisciplinary scientific field concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Astrobiology considers the question of whether extraterrestrial li ...

Biogenesis

Biogenesis is the production of new living organisms or organelles. Conceptually, biogenesis is primarily attributed to Louis Pasteur and encompasses the belief that complex living things come only from other living things, by means of reproducti ...

Bugonia

In the ancient Mediterranean region, bugonia or bougonia was a ritual based on the belief that bees were spontaneously generated from a cows carcass, although it is possible that the ritual had more currency as a poetic and learned trope than as ...

CAESAR (spacecraft)

CAESAR is a sample-return mission concept to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The mission was proposed in 2017 to NASAs New Frontiers program mission 4, and on 20 December 2017 it was one of two finalists selected for further concept development. ...

Coacervate

Coacervates are organic-rich droplets formed via liquid-liquid phase separation, mainly resulting from association of oppositely charged molecules or from hydrophobic proteins. Coacervation is a phenomenon that produces coacervate colloidal dropl ...

Collodictyon

Three species are currently recognised in this genus. The type species is Collodictyon triciliatum. A second species - Collodictyon sparsevacuolatum - named by Skuja is also recognised; this species is found in freshwater in the United States and ...

Cosmic ancestry

Cosmic ancestry is a hypothesis of the origin of life on Earth, based on the panspermia views of Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe. Cosmic Ancestry speculates that life, like the universe itself, has no date of origin, and has always existed ...

Creationism

Creationism is the religious belief that nature, and aspects such as the universe, Earth, life, and humans, originated with supernatural acts of divine creation. In its broadest sense, creationism includes a continuum of religious views, which va ...

Diffusion-limited escape

Diffusion-limited escape occurs when the rate of atmospheric escape to space is limited by the upward diffusion of escaping gases through the upper atmosphere, and not by escape mechanisms at the top of the atmosphere. The escape of any atmospher ...

James Ferris

James "Jim" P. Ferris was an American chemist. He is known for his contributions to the understanding of the origins of life on Earth, specifically by demonstrating a successful mechanism of clay-catalyzed polymerization of RNA, providing further ...

Fig Tree Formation

The Fig Tree Formation, also called Fig Tree Group, is a stromatolite-containing geological formation in South Africa. The rock contains fossils of microscopic life forms of about 3.26 billion years old. Identified organisms include the bacterium ...

Formose reaction

The formose reaction, discovered by Aleksandr Butlerov in 1861 and hence, also known as the Butlerov reaction, involves the formation of sugars from formaldehyde. The term formose is a portmanteau of form aldehyde and ald ose.

GADV-protein world hypothesis

GADV-protein world is a hypothetical stage of abiogenesis. GADV stands for the one letter codes of four amino acids, namely, glycine, alanine, aspartic acid and valine, the main components of GADV proteins. In the GADV-protein world hypothesis, i ...

Gard model

In evolutionary biology, the GARD model is a general kinetic model for homeostatic-growth and fission of compositional-assemblies, with specific application towards lipids. In the context of abiogenesis, the lipid-world suggests assemblies of sim ...

Great Oxidation Event

The Great Oxidation Event, sometimes also called the Great Oxygenation Event, Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, or Oxygen Revolution, was a time period when the Earths atmosphere and the shallow ocean experienced a rise in oxyg ...

Heterotrophic theory

The heterotrophic theory of the origin of life was first proposed by Alexander Oparin and J. B. S. Haldane during the first part of the 20th century. According to heterotrophic theory, the organic compounds were synthesized in a primitive earth u ...

Hypercycle (chemistry)

In chemistry, a hypercycle is an abstract model of organization of self-replicating molecules connected in a cyclic, autocatalytic manner. It was introduced in an ordinary differential equation form by the Nobel Prize winner Manfred Eigen in 1971 ...

Incomplete Nature

Incomplete Nature: How Mind Emerged from Matter is a 2011 book by biological anthropologist Terrence Deacon. The book covers topics in biosemiotics, philosophy of mind, and the origins of life. Broadly, the book seeks to naturalistically explain ...

Intelligent Design: Message from the Designers

Intelligent Design: Message from the Designers is a book written by Claude Vorilhon, the founder of the Raelian movement. The book was originally titled The Message Given to me by Extraterrestrials, but was republished in 2006 under the current n ...

Iron–sulfur world hypothesis

The iron–sulfur world hypothesis is a set of proposals for the origin of life and the early evolution of life advanced in a series of articles between 1988 and 1992 by Gunter Wachtershauser, a Munich patent lawyer with a degree in chemistry, who ...

Jeewanu

Jeewanu are synthetic chemical particles that possess cell-like structure and seem to have some functional properties; that is, they are a model of primitive cells, or protocells. It was first synthesised by Krishna Bahadur, an Indian chemist and ...

Methanosarcina acetivorans

Methanosarcina acetivorans is a versatile methane producing microbe which is found in such diverse environments as oil wells, trash dumps, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and oxygen-depleted sediments beneath kelp beds. Only M. acetivorans and micro ...

Miller–Urey experiment

The Miller–Urey experiment was a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions. The experiment at the time supported Alexander ...

Stanley Miller

Stanley Lloyd Miller was an American chemist who made landmark experiments in the origin of life by demonstrating that a wide range of vital organic compounds can be synthesized by fairly simple chemical processes from inorganic substances. In 19 ...

Harold J. Morowitz

Harold Joseph Morowitz was an American biophysicist who studied the application of thermodynamics to living systems. Author of numerous books and articles, his work includes technical monographs as well as essays. The origin of life was his prima ...

Obcell

Obcells are hypothetical proto-organisms or. The term was first proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 2001. According to Cavalier-Smiths theory for the origin of the first cell, two cup-shaped obcells or hemicells fused to make a protocell with do ...

Oparin Medal

The Oparin/Urey Medal honours important contributions to the field of origins of life. The medal is awarded by the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life. The award was originally named for Alexander Ivanovich Oparin, one of th ...

Alexander Oparin

Alexander Ivanovich Oparin was a Soviet biochemist notable for his theories about the origin of life, and for his book The Origin of Life. He also studied the biochemistry of material processing by plants and enzyme reactions in plant cells. He s ...

Leslie Orgel

Born in London, England, Orgel received his Bachelor of Arts degree in chemistry with first-class honours from the University of Oxford in 1948. In 1951 he was elected a Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford and in 1953 was awarded his PhD in chemis ...

PAH world hypothesis

The PAH world hypothesis is a speculative hypothesis that proposes that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, known to be abundant in the universe, including in comets, and assumed to be abundant in the primordial soup of the early Earth, played a ma ...

Panspermia

Panspermia, meaning all, and σπέρμα, meaning seed) is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by micro ...

Peptide nucleic acid

Peptide nucleic acid is an artificially synthesized polymer similar to DNA or RNA. Synthetic peptide nucleic acid oligomers have been used in recent years in molecular biology procedures, diagnostic assays, and antisense therapies. Due to their h ...

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons - organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen - that are composed of multiple aromatic rings. The simplest such chemicals are naphthalene, having two aromatic rings, and the three-ring c ...

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