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Escalation archetype

The escalation archetype is one of possible types of system behaviour that are known as system archetypes. The escalation archetype is common for situations of non-cooperative games where each player can make own decisions and these decisions lea ...

Escalation of commitment

Escalation of commitment is a human behavior pattern in which an individual or group facing increasingly negative outcomes from a decision, action, or investment nevertheless continues the behavior instead of altering course. The actor maintains ...

Ethnic conflict

An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups. While the source of the conflict may be political, social, economic or religious, the individuals in conflict must expressly fight for their ethnic groups position wit ...

Frozen conflict

In international relations, a frozen conflict is a situation in which active armed conflict has been brought to an end, but no peace treaty or other political framework resolves the conflict to the satisfaction of the combatants. Therefore, legal ...

Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research

The Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research is an independent and interdisciplinary registered association located at the Department of Political Science at the University of Heidelberg. Since 1991, the HIIK has been committed to ...

Hobbesian trap

The Hobbesian trap is a theory that explains why preemptive strikes occur between two groups, out of bilateral fear of an imminent attack. Without outside influences this situation will lead to a fear spiral in which fear will lead to an arms rac ...

Hoʻoponopono

Hooponopono is a Hawaiian practice of reconciliation and forgiveness. The Hawaiian word translates into English simply as correction, with the synonyms manage or supervise, and the antonym careless. Similar forgiveness practices are performed on ...

Nazareth-Conferences

The Nazareth-Conferences were the beginning of a project of psychoanalysts from England, Israel and Germany, whose founding fathers and mothers intended to contribute to a process of solving conflicts that developed between national groups. The c ...

Odium theologicum

The Latin phrase odium theologicum is the name originally given to the often intense anger and hatred generated by disputes over theology. It has also been adopted to describe non-theological disputes of a rancorous nature. John Stuart Mill, disc ...

Process consultant

A process consultant is a highly qualified professional that has insights into and understands the psychological and social dynamics of working with various client systems such as whole organizations, groups, and individuals. Part of the field ca ...

Program on Negotiation

The Program on Negotiation is a university consortium dedicated to developing the theory and practice of negotiation and dispute resolution. As a community of scholars and practitioners, PON serves a unique role in the world negotiation community ...

Protracted social conflict

Protracted social conflict is a technical term that generally refers to conflicts described by other researchers as protracted or intractable: complex, severe, commonly enduring, and often violent. The term was presented in a theory developed by ...

Realistic conflict theory

Realistic conflict theory, also known as realistic group conflict theory, is a social psychological model of intergroup conflict. The theory explains how intergroup hostility can arise as a result of conflicting goals and competition over limited ...

Role conflict

Role conflict occurs when there are incompatible demands placed upon a person relating to their job or position. Persons experience role conflict when they find themselves pulled in various directions as they try to respond to the many statuses t ...

School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution

The School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution is a college of George Mason University based near Washington, D.C., United States with locations in Arlington, Fairfax, and Lorton, Virginia, as well as at the Mason Korea campus in Songdo, South K ...

Sociology of peace, war, and social conflict

The sociological study of peace, war, and social conflict entails the use of sociological theory and methods to analyze group conflicts, especially collective violence and alternative constructive nonviolent forms of conflict transformation. The ...

Sociology of Revolution (book)

Sociology of Revolution is a book by Russian American sociologist Pitirim Sorokin. Sociology of revolution as branch of sociology was developed by Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan. to a certain extent earlier than Sorokin. Hobbes lived and created in t ...

Technological escalation

Technological escalation describes the situation where two parties in competition tend to employ continual technological improvements in their attempt to defeat each other. Technology is defined here as a creative invention, either in the form of ...

Third Party Non-violent Intervention

Third Party Non-violent Intervention refers to the practice of intervening from the outside in violent conflicts with the aim of reducing violence and allowing "space" for conflict resolution. Two common forms of intervention are as an intermedia ...

Verbal self-defense

Verbal self-defense, also known as verbal judo or verbal aikido, is defined as using ones words to prevent, de-escalate, or end an attempted assault. It is a way of using words to maintain mental and emotional safety. This kind of "conflict manag ...

West Africa Network for Peacebuilding

The West Africa Network for Peacebuilding The West Africa Network for Peacebuilding is a leading Regional Peacebuilding organisation founded in 1998 in response to civil wars that plagued West Africa in the 1990s. Over the years, WANEP has succee ...

Work–family conflict

Work–family conflict occurs when an individual experiences incompatible demands between work and family roles, causing participation in both roles to become more difficult. This imbalance creates conflict at the work-life interface. It is importa ...

Social construct theory of ADHD

The social construction theory of ADHD argues that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is not necessarily an actual pathology, but that an ADHD diagnosis is a socially constructed explanation to describe behaviors that simply do not meet pre ...

Theodore W. Allen

Theodore William "Ted" Allen was an American intellectual, writer, and activist, best known for his pioneering writings since the 1960s on "white skin privilege" and the "invention" of the white race, particularly his seminal Class Struggle and t ...

Anarchy Is What States Make of It

Anarchy Is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics is a journal article by Alexander Wendt published in International Organization in 1992 that outlines a constructivist approach to international relations theory. Wendt ...

Anchored Instruction

Anchored Instruction is a technology centered learning approach, which falls under the social constructionism paradigm. It is a form of situated learning that emphasizes problem-solving within an integrated learning context, which can be examined ...

Anthropological theories of value

Anthropological theories of value attempt to expand on the traditional theories of value used by economists or ethicists. They are often broader in scope than the theories of value of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, etc. u ...

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies include concerns about its existence, causes, perceived overdiagnosis, and methods of treatment, especially with the use of stimulant medications in children. These controversies have surroun ...

David Bartholomae

David J. Bartholomae is an American scholar in composition studies. He received his PhD from Rutgers University in 1975 and is currently a Professor of English and former Chair of the English Department at the University of Pittsburgh. His primar ...

Peter L. Berger

Peter Ludwig Berger was an Austrian-born American sociologist and Protestant theologian. Berger became known for his work in the sociology of knowledge, the sociology of religion, study of modernization, and theoretical contributions to sociologi ...

Biographical research

Biographical research is a qualitative research approach aligned to the social interpretive paradigm of research. The biographical research is concerned with the reconstruction of life histories and the constitution of meaning based on biographic ...

Blackboxing

In science studies, the social process of blackboxing is based on the abstract notion of a black box. To cite Bruno Latour, blackboxing is "the way scientific and technical work is made invisible by its own success. When a machine runs efficientl ...

Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg

Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg is a German sociologist, ethnologist, sexologist, and writer further specializing into the fields of psychology, Indo-European studies, religious studies, and philosophy, since 1980 also increasingly anthropology. As Bl ...

Causes of autism

Many causes of autism have been proposed, but understanding of the theory of causation of autism and the other autism spectrum disorders is incomplete. Research indicates that genetic factors predominate. The heritability of autism, however, is c ...

Chronemics

Chronemics is the study of the role of time in communication. It is one of several subcategories to emerge from the study of nonverbal communication. According to the Encyclopedia of Special Education" Chronemics includes time orientation, unders ...

Chua Beng Huat

Chua Beng Huat is a Singaporean sociologist. He is currently a professor in the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts and Social Science at the National University of Singapore, and concurrently serving as a faculty member at the Yale-NUS Coll ...

Stewart Clegg

Stewart Clegg is a British-born Australian sociologist and organizational theorist, and a professor at the University of Technology, Sydney, where he is also the research director of CMOS.

Collaborative language systems

Collaborative language systems is a therapeutic approach largely based in contemporary hermeneutics, the study of interpretation as a way to produce understanding, while considering both context and cognition, as well as social constructionism. T ...

Raewyn Connell

Raewyn Connell, usually cited as R. W. Connell, is an Australian sociologist. She gained prominence as an intellectual of the Australian New Left. She was appointed University Professor at the University of Sydney in 2004, and retired from her Un ...

Consensus reality

Consensus reality is that which is generally agreed to be reality, based on a consensus view. The appeal to consensus arises from the fact that humans do not fully understand or agree upon the nature of knowledge or ontology, often making it unce ...

Constructivist epistemology

Constructivist epistemology is a branch in philosophy of science maintaining that scientific knowledge is constructed by the scientific community, who seek to measure and construct models of the natural world. Natural science therefore consists o ...

Cool (aesthetic)

Coolness is an aesthetic of attitude, behavior, comportment, appearance and style which is generally admired. Because of the varied and changing connotations of cool, as well as its subjective nature, the word has no single meaning. It has associ ...

Courtship

Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein a couple get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement, followed by a marriage. A courtship may be an informal and private matter between two peopl ...

Critical race theory

Critical race theory is a theoretical framework in the social sciences, developed out of epistemic philosophy, that uses critical theory to examine society and culture as they relate to categorizations of race, law, and power. It began as a theor ...

Social determinism

Social determinism is the theory that social interactions and constructs alone determine individual behavior. Consider certain human behaviors, such as committing murder, or writing poetry. A social determinist would look only at social phenomena ...

Social construction of disability

The social construction of disability is the idea that society and its institutions have the power to construct disability around social expectations of health. This idea argues that disability is construction based on several localized social ex ...

Crip theory

Disability studies is an academic discipline that examines the meaning, nature, and consequences of disability. Initially, the field focused on the division between "impairment" and "disability", where impairment was an impairment of an individua ...

Discourse of power

The discourse of power is used when it comes to differentiating the levels of power due to cultural and social characteristics that come about through societal upbringing. The ways we think and talk about a subject influence and reflect the ways ...

Disease mongering

Disease mongering is a term for the practice of widening the diagnostic boundaries of illnesses and aggressively promoting their public awareness in order to expand the markets for treatment. Among the entities benefiting from selling and deliver ...

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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