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Living Reviews in Landscape Research

Living Reviews in Landscape Research is a peer-reviewed open access scientific review journal covering topics in interdisciplinary domains of landscape ecology. This includes mutual dependencies of land uses, such as: agriculture, forestry, recre ...

Low-impact development (U.S. and Canada)

Low-impact development is a term used in Canada and the United States to describe a land planning and engineering design approach to manage stormwater runoff as part of green infrastructure. LID emphasizes conservation and use of on-site natural ...

Marconi Plaza, Philadelphia

Marconi Plaza is an urban park square located in South Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Plaza was named to recognize the 20th Century cultural identity in Philadelphia of the surrounding Italian-American enclave neighborhood and beca ...

Landscape mythology

Landscape mythology and anthropology of landscape are terms for a field of study advocated since about 1990 by Kurt Derungs. Derungs describes the field as an interdisciplinary approach to landscape combining archaeology, ethnology and mythology. ...

National Conservation Lands

National Conservation Lands, formally known as the National Landscape Conservation System, is a 35-million-acre collection of lands in 873 federally recognized areas considered to be the crown jewels of the American West. These lands represent 10 ...

Observation deck

An observation deck, observation platform, or viewing platform is an elevated sightseeing platform usually situated upon a tall architectural structure, such as a skyscraper or observation tower. Observation decks are sometimes enclosed from weat ...

Olmsted Brothers

The Olmsted Brothers company was an influential landscape architectural firm in the United States, established in 1898 by brothers John Charles Olmsted and Frederick Law Olmsted Jr., sons of the eminent landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted.

Piet Oudolf

Piet Oudolf is an influential Dutch garden designer, plant nursery man and author. He is a leading figure of the "New Perennial" movement - his designs and plant compositions using bold drifts of herbaceous perennials and grasses which are chosen ...

Park

A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urban parks are green spaces set aside for recreation inside towns and cities. National p ...

Parkway

A parkway is a landscaped thoroughfare. The term is particularly used for a roadway in a park or connecting to a park from which trucks and other heavy vehicles are excluded. Over the years, many different types of roads have been labeled parkway ...

Permeable paving

Permeable paving is a method of paving vehicle and pedestrian pathways to enable infiltration of stormwater runoff. Permeable pavement surfaces typically include pervious concrete, porous asphalt, paving stones and interlocking pavers. Unlike tra ...

Permanent European Conference for the Study of the Rural Landscape

The Permanent European Conference for the Study of the Rural Landscape is an international network of landscape researchers whose interest focus on the past, present and future of European landscapes, and serves as an international platform for n ...

Public open space

A public open space is defined as an open piece of land both green space or hard space to which there is public access. Public open space is often referred to by urban planners and landscape architects by the acronym POS. Varied interpretations o ...

Regrading

Regrading is the process of grading for raising and/or lowering the levels of land. Such a project can also be referred to as a regrade. Regrading may be done on a small scale as in preparation of a building site or on quite a large scale as in m ...

Runoff footprint

A runoff footprint is the total surface runoff that a site produces over the course of a year. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency stormwater is "rainwater and melted snow that runs off streets, lawns, and other sites". ...

Seascape

A seascape is a photograph, painting, or other work of art which depicts the sea, in other words an example of marine art. The word originated as a formation from landscape, which was first used of images of land in art. By a similar development, ...

Shade tree

A shade tree is a large tree whose primary role is to provide shade in the surrounding environment due to its spreading canopy and crown, where it may give shelter from sunlight in the heat of the summer for people who seek recreational needs in ...

Slieve Coillte

Slieve Coillte is a hill in the south of County Wexford, Ireland. The hill is the highest point on the Hook peninsula, with an elevation of 268.5 metres. Villages around Slieve Coillte include New Ross, Slaught, Cassagh, Gusserane, Campile, Ramsg ...

Softscape

Softscape refers to the live horticultural elements of a landscape. Softscaping can include flowers, plants, shrubs, trees, flower beds, and duties like weed/nuisance management, grading, planting, mowing, trimming, aerating, spraying, and diggin ...

Stile

A stile is a structure or opening that provides people passage over or through a boundary via steps, ladders, or narrow gaps. Stiles are often built in rural areas along footpaths, fences, walls, or hedges that enclose animals, allowing people to ...

Sustainable city

Sustainable cities, urban sustainability, or eco-city is a city designed with consideration for social, economic, environmental impact, and resilient habitat for existing populations, without compromising the ability of future generations to expe ...

Swale (landform)

A swale is a shady spot, or a sunken or marshy place. In particular, in US usage, it is a shallow channel with gently sloping sides. Such a swale may be either natural or man-made. Artificial swales are often infiltration basins, designed to mana ...

Tourist landscape

A tourist landscape can be described as constructed through a large number of symbolic and material transformations of an original physical and/or socioeconomic landscape in order to serve the interests of tourists and the tourist industry. Since ...

Urban design

Urban design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities, towns, and villages and planning for the provision of municipal services to residents and visitors. In contrast to architecture, which focuses on the design of ...

Village green

A village green is a common open area within a village or other settlement. Traditionally, a village green was common grassland at the centre of a rural settlement used for grazing with a pond for watering cattle and other stock. The village gree ...

Waterbar

A water bar or interceptor dyke is a road construction feature that is used to prevent erosion on sloping roads, cleared paths through woodland, or other accessways by reducing flow length. It is a diagonal channel across the road that diverts su ...

Navigation

Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, marine navigation, a ...

45×90 points

The 45×90 points are the four points on earth which are halfway between the geographical poles, the equator, the Prime Meridian, and the 180th meridian.

Absolute bearing

In nautical navigation the absolute bearing is the clockwise angle between north and an object observed from the vessel. If the north used as reference is the true geographical north then the bearing is a true bearing whereas if the reference use ...

Admiralty chart

Admiralty charts are nautical charts issued by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office and subject to Crown Copyright. Over 3.500 Standard Nautical Charts and 14.000 Electronic Navigational Charts are available with the Admiralty portfolio offerin ...

Ambrose Channel pilot cable

The Ambrose Channel pilot cable, also called the Ambrose Channel leader cable, was a cable laid in Ambrose Channel at the entrance to the Port of New York and New Jersey that provided an audio tone for guiding ships in and out of port at times of ...

Animal navigation

Animal navigation is the ability of many animals to find their way accurately without maps or instruments. Birds such as the Arctic tern, insects such as the monarch butterfly and fish such as the salmon regularly migrate thousands of miles to an ...

Apparent wind

The apparent wind is the wind experienced by an observer in motion and is the relative velocity of the wind in relation to the observer. The velocity of the apparent wind is the vector sum of the velocity of the headwind which is the velocity a m ...

As the crow flies

As the crow flies, similar to in a beeline, is an idiom for the most direct path between two points. This meaning is attested from the early 19th century, and appeared in Charles Dickenss novel Oliver Twist: We cut over the fields at the back wit ...

Atlantis Expedition

Expedition Atlantis is the name given to the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean made by five Argentines in 1984, leaving from the port of Tenerife in the Canary Islands and 52 days later arriving in La Guaira, Venezuela. The aim was to prove that 350 ...

Azimuth

An azimuth ; from Arabic اَلسُّمُوت as-sumūt, the directions, the plural form of the Arabic noun السَّمْت as-samt, meaning the direction) is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from an observer to a point of intere ...

Balasore Roads

Balasore Roads is a roadstead, on the Indian coast near Balasore. It was the location of the Bengal Pilot Service pilot boarding station. It was considered to be a generally safe anchorage, with depths varying from 5 to 15 fathoms, and with the s ...

Bar (tropical cyclone)

The bar of a mature tropical cyclone is a very dark gray-black layer of cloud appearing near the horizon as seen from an observer preceding the approach of the storm, and is composed of dense stratocumulus clouds. Cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds ...

Bearing (navigation)

In navigation, bearing is the horizontal angle between the direction of an object and another object, or between it and that of true north. Relative bearing refers to the angle between the crafts forward direction and the location of another obje ...

Blown off course

To be blown off course in the sailing ship era meant be to diverted by unexpected winds, getting lost possibly to shipwreck or to a new destination. In the ancient world, this was especially a great danger before the maturation of the Maritime Si ...

Bouldergaine

Bouldergaine is a variant sport combining the disciplines of bouldering and rogaining. The sport takes place in a large boulder field, which is mapped in a similar way to a traditional rogaine. Teams of 2 people choose which checkpoints to visit ...

Bowditch's American Practical Navigator

The American Practical Navigator, originally written by Nathaniel Bowditch, is an encyclopedia of navigation. It serves as a valuable handbook on oceanography and meteorology, and contains useful tables and a maritime glossary. In 1867 the copyri ...

Buffalo Automation

Buffalo Automation is an artificial intelligence startup that develops autonomous navigation technology for commercial ships and recreational boats, with the goal to improve maritime safety. It is a private company based in Buffalo, New York. Thi ...

Buoy

A buoy is a floating device that can have many purposes. It can be anchored or allowed to drift with ocean currents. The etymology of the word is disputed.

Cairn

A cairn is a man-made pile of stones. The word cairn comes from the Scottish Gaelic: càrn. Cairns have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present. In modern times, cairns are often erected as landmark ...

La Cartografia Mallorquina

La Cartografia Mallorquina is a book of essays on the Majorcan portolans written by Professor Julio Rey Pastor with the collaboration of Ernesto Garcia Camarero. It is a scholarly essay, a key element in the study of portolans, especially those m ...

Celestial coordinate system

In astronomy, a celestial coordinate system is a system for specifying positions of satellites, planets, stars, galaxies, and other celestial objects. Coordinate systems can specify an objects position in three-dimensional space or plot merely it ...

Celestial navigation

Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their p ...

Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route

The Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route, also known as Glavsevmorput or GUSMP, was a Soviet government organization in charge of the maritime Northern Sea Route, established in January 1932 and dissolved in 1964.

Circle of equal altitude

The circle of equal altitude also called circle of position, CoP, is the real line of position in celestial navigation. It is defined as the locus of points on the Earth on which an observer sees a star, at a given time, with the same observed al ...

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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